gemseo / caches

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base_cache module

Caching module to avoid multiple evaluations of a discipline.

class gemseo.caches.base_cache.BaseCache(tolerance=0.0, name=None)[source]

Bases: Mapping[Mapping[str, Any], CacheEntry]

A base class for caches with a dictionary-like interface.

Caches are mainly used to store the MDODiscipline evaluations.

A cache entry is defined by:

  • an input data in the form of a dictionary of objects associated with input names, i.e. {"input_name": object},

  • an output data in the form of a dictionary of NumPy arrays associated with output names, i.e. {"output_name": array}.

  • an optional Jacobian data, in the form of a nested dictionary of NumPy arrays associating output and input names, i.e. {"output_name": {"input_name": array}}.

Examples

The evaluation of the function \(y=f(x)=(x^2, 2x^3\))` and its derivative at \(x=1\) leads to cache the entry defined by:

  • the input data: \(1.\),

  • the output data: \((1., 2.)\),

  • the Jacobian data: \((2., 6.)^T\).

>>> input_data = {"x": array([1.0])}
>>> output_data = {"y": array([1.0, 2.0])}
>>> jacobian_data = {"y": {"x": array([[2.0], [6.0]])}}

For this input_data, one can cache the output data:

>>> cache.cache_outputs(input_data, output_data)

as well as the Jacobian data:

>>> cache.cache_jacobian(input_data, jacobian_data)

Caches have a abc.Mapping interface making them easy to set (cache[input_data] = (output_data, jacobian_data)), access (cache_entry = cache[input_data]) and update (cache.update(other_cache)).

Notes

cache_entry is a CacheEntry with the ordered fields input, output and jacobian accessible either by index, e.g. input_data = cache_entry[0], or by name, e.g. input_data = cache_entry.inputs.

Notes

If an output name is also an input name, the output name is suffixed with [out].

One can also get the number of cache entries with size = len(cache) and iterate over the cache, e.g. for input_data, output_data, _ in cache for index, (input_data, _, jacobian_data) in enumerate(cache) or [entry.outputs for entry in cache].

See also

SimpleCache to store the last discipline evaluation. MemoryFullCache to store all the discipline evaluations in memory. HDF5Cache to store all the discipline evaluations in a HDF5 file.

Parameters:
  • tolerance (float) –

    The tolerance below which two input arrays are considered equal: norm(new_array-cached_array)/(1+norm(cached_array)) <= tolerance. If this is the case for all the input names, then the cached output data shall be returned rather than re-evaluating the discipline. This tolerance could be useful to optimize CPU time. It could be something like 2 * numpy.finfo(float).eps.

    By default it is set to 0.0.

  • name (str) – A name for the cache. If None, use the class name.

class Group(value)[source]

Bases: StrEnum

A data group.

capitalize()

Return a capitalized version of the string.

More specifically, make the first character have upper case and the rest lower case.

casefold()

Return a version of the string suitable for caseless comparisons.

center(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a centered string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

count(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

encode(encoding='utf-8', errors='strict')

Encode the string using the codec registered for encoding.

encoding

The encoding in which to encode the string.

errors

The error handling scheme to use for encoding errors. The default is ‘strict’ meaning that encoding errors raise a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are ‘ignore’, ‘replace’ and ‘xmlcharrefreplace’ as well as any other name registered with codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.

endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) bool

Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

expandtabs(tabsize=8)

Return a copy where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.

If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.

find(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

format(*args, **kwargs) str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

format_map(mapping) str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

index(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

isalnum()

Return True if the string is an alpha-numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is alpha-numeric if all characters in the string are alpha-numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isalpha()

Return True if the string is an alphabetic string, False otherwise.

A string is alphabetic if all characters in the string are alphabetic and there is at least one character in the string.

isascii()

Return True if all characters in the string are ASCII, False otherwise.

ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F. Empty string is ASCII too.

isdecimal()

Return True if the string is a decimal string, False otherwise.

A string is a decimal string if all characters in the string are decimal and there is at least one character in the string.

isdigit()

Return True if the string is a digit string, False otherwise.

A string is a digit string if all characters in the string are digits and there is at least one character in the string.

isidentifier()

Return True if the string is a valid Python identifier, False otherwise.

Call keyword.iskeyword(s) to test whether string s is a reserved identifier, such as “def” or “class”.

islower()

Return True if the string is a lowercase string, False otherwise.

A string is lowercase if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

isnumeric()

Return True if the string is a numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is numeric if all characters in the string are numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isprintable()

Return True if the string is printable, False otherwise.

A string is printable if all of its characters are considered printable in repr() or if it is empty.

isspace()

Return True if the string is a whitespace string, False otherwise.

A string is whitespace if all characters in the string are whitespace and there is at least one character in the string.

istitle()

Return True if the string is a title-cased string, False otherwise.

In a title-cased string, upper- and title-case characters may only follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.

isupper()

Return True if the string is an uppercase string, False otherwise.

A string is uppercase if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

join(iterable, /)

Concatenate any number of strings.

The string whose method is called is inserted in between each given string. The result is returned as a new string.

Example: ‘.’.join([‘ab’, ‘pq’, ‘rs’]) -> ‘ab.pq.rs’

ljust(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a left-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

lower()

Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.

lstrip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with leading whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

static maketrans()

Return a translation table usable for str.translate().

If there is only one argument, it must be a dictionary mapping Unicode ordinals (integers) or characters to Unicode ordinals, strings or None. Character keys will be then converted to ordinals. If there are two arguments, they must be strings of equal length, and in the resulting dictionary, each character in x will be mapped to the character at the same position in y. If there is a third argument, it must be a string, whose characters will be mapped to None in the result.

partition(sep, /)

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing the original string and two empty strings.

removeprefix(prefix, /)

Return a str with the given prefix string removed if present.

If the string starts with the prefix string, return string[len(prefix):]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

removesuffix(suffix, /)

Return a str with the given suffix string removed if present.

If the string ends with the suffix string and that suffix is not empty, return string[:-len(suffix)]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

replace(old, new, count=-1, /)

Return a copy with all occurrences of substring old replaced by new.

count

Maximum number of occurrences to replace. -1 (the default value) means replace all occurrences.

If the optional argument count is given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.

rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

rjust(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a right-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

rpartition(sep, /)

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string, starting at the end. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing two empty strings and the original string.

rsplit(sep=None, maxsplit=-1)

Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.

sep

The delimiter according which to split the string. None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace, and discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits to do. -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Splits are done starting at the end of the string and working to the front.

rstrip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

split(sep=None, maxsplit=-1)

Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.

sep

The delimiter according which to split the string. None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace, and discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits to do. -1 (the default value) means no limit.

splitlines(keepends=False)

Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line boundaries.

Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends is given and true.

startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) bool

Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

strip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

swapcase()

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase and lowercase characters to uppercase.

title()

Return a version of the string where each word is titlecased.

More specifically, words start with uppercased characters and all remaining cased characters have lower case.

translate(table, /)

Replace each character in the string using the given translation table.

table

Translation table, which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to Unicode ordinals, strings, or None.

The table must implement lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a dictionary or list. If this operation raises LookupError, the character is left untouched. Characters mapped to None are deleted.

upper()

Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.

zfill(width, /)

Pad a numeric string with zeros on the left, to fill a field of the given width.

The string is never truncated.

INPUTS = 'inputs'

The label for the input variables.

JACOBIAN = 'jacobian'

The label for the Jacobian.

OUTPUTS = 'outputs'

The label for the output variables.

abstract cache_jacobian(input_data, jacobian_data)[source]

Cache the input and Jacobian data.

Parameters:
  • input_data (StrKeyMapping) – The data containing the input data to cache.

  • jacobian_data (JacobianData) – The Jacobian data to cache.

Return type:

None

abstract cache_outputs(input_data, output_data)[source]

Cache input and output data.

Parameters:
  • input_data (Mapping[str, Any]) – The data containing the input data to cache.

  • output_data (Mapping[str, Any]) – The data containing the output data to cache.

Return type:

None

clear()[source]

Clear the cache.

Return type:

None

get(k[, d]) D[k] if k in D, else d.  d defaults to None.
abstract get_all_entries()[source]

Return an iterator over all the entries.

The tolerance is ignored.

Yields:

The entries.

Return type:

Iterator[CacheEntry]

items() a set-like object providing a view on D's items
keys() a set-like object providing a view on D's keys
to_dataset(name='', categorize=True, input_names=(), output_names=())[source]

Build a Dataset from the cache.

Parameters:
  • name (str) –

    A name for the dataset. If empty, use the name of the cache.

    By default it is set to “”.

  • categorize (bool) –

    Whether to distinguish between the different groups of variables. Otherwise, group all the variables in Dataset.PARAMETER_GROUP`.

    By default it is set to True.

  • input_names (Iterable[str]) –

    The names of the inputs to be exported. If empty, use all the inputs.

    By default it is set to ().

  • output_names (Iterable[str]) –

    The names of the outputs to be exported. If empty, use all the outputs. If an output name is also an input name, the output name is suffixed with [out].

    By default it is set to ().

Returns:

A dataset version of the cache.

Return type:

Dataset

values() an object providing a view on D's values
property input_names: list[str]

The names of the inputs of the last entry.

abstract property last_entry: CacheEntry

The last cache entry.

name: str

The name of the cache.

property names_to_sizes: dict[str, int]

The sizes of the variables of the last entry.

For a Numpy array, its size is used. For a container, its length is used. Otherwise, a size of 1 is used.

property output_names: list[str]

The names of the outputs of the last entry.

tolerance: float

The tolerance below which two input arrays are considered equal.

gemseo.caches.base_cache.DATA_COMPARATOR(dict_of_arrays, other_dict_of_arrays, tolerance=0.0)

The comparator of input data structures.

It is used to check whether an input data has been cached in.

Parameters:
Return type:

bool

Examples using BaseCache

HDF5 cache

HDF5 cache

Memory full cache

Memory full cache

Simple cache

Simple cache

Convert a cache to a dataset

Convert a cache to a dataset