# Interfacing simulation software¶

To interface a simulation software with GEMSEO, and make an MDODiscipline from it, several options are available:

All these options can be mixed to build MDO processes, allowing a strong flexibility.

Warning

All the inputs and outputs names of the disciplines in a scenario shall be consistent.

GEMSEO assumes that the data are tagged by their names with a global convention in the whole process. What two disciplines call “X” shall be the same “X”. The coupling variables for instance, are detected thanks to these conventions. The wrappers shall handle conversions if needed. This may rely on third party technologies provided by the platform.

The next sections go into the details of the wrapping of a discipline in GEMSEO.

## The basics of wrappers¶

A wrapper, or library wrapper, is a piece of software which translates the existing API of an existing program or a library, into a compatible one. Each program is encapsulated within using a dedicated interface. GEMSEO defines the standardized interface in the MDODiscipline interface, to define input data, output data and an execution of the integrated software. Thanks to it, GEMSEO can treat the integrated software independently of their own implementation and of their own conventions to describe the inputs and outputs (file formats for instance).

The next figure displays the concept of wrapper in workflow management.

## Input and output description: grammars¶

### Principles¶

The inputs and outputs are represented by grammars. Grammars are a set of rules that define whether a set of data is valid or not as inputs or outputs of an MDODiscipline. There are at least two grammars for a discipline: one for input data and one for output data.

In GEMSEO, there is an BaseGrammar class that defines the contract of the grammars implementations, such as checking data, listing the required data, etc.

• SimpleGrammar: it manipulates the list of required data names,

and a list of the associated types (string, float, numpy.ndarray or any type provided). There is also a dictionary of default values that adds default values to the data if they are not provided.

• JSONGrammar: a JSON-based grammar.

You must provide a JSON file that describes the validity of the data. This is a much more advanced and much more powerful description. JSON is a web standard supported by many languages: JSON Schema. Please read Understanding JSON Schema for details on JSON schema. The input and output schemas for the disciplines must be files in the same directory as the Python module of the discipline, with a naming convention MyDisciplineName_input.json and MyDisciplineName_output.json.

### Examples of grammars¶

The following code is the JSON Schema file of the SSBJ Mission discipline of Solving with an MDF formulation. All inputs are arrays of floats.

{
"name": "SobieskiMission_input",
"required": ["y_14","x_shared","y_24","y_34"],
"properties": {
"y_14": {
"items": {
"type": "number"
},
"type": "array"
},
"x_shared": {
"items": {
"type": "number"
},
"type": "array"
},
"y_24": {
"items": {
"type": "number"
},
"type": "array"
},
"y_34": {
"items": {
"type": "number"
},
"type": "array"
}
},
"$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "type": "object", "id": "#SobieskiMission_input" }  JSON Grammars are used to describe and check many inputs of GEMSEO, such as algorithms options. The MDOScenario class is a subclass of MDODiscipline, therefore it has its own input grammar, which has two mandatory data: the optimization algorithm and the maximum number of iterations. { "name": "MDOScenario_input", "required": ["algo", "max_iter"], "properties": { "max_iter": { "type" : "integer", "minimum":1 }, "algo": { "type": "string", "enum":["SLSQP","L-BFGS-B","TNC","NLOPT_COBYLA", "NLOPT_MMA","NLOPT_SLSQP","NLOPT_BOBYQA","NLOPT_BFGS", "NLOPT_NEWUOA", "SNOPTB", "ODD"] } }, "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema",
"type": "object",
"id": "#MDOScenario_input"
}


### Examples of data checking by the grammars¶

An advantage of the JSON schema is that it is implemented in many languages. Python has a json-schema package, which can check data against a JSON schema and provide clear error messages, which is key in the development and debugging of an MDO process. For the final user, this is also very important, since a lot of data has to be filled, which is error-prone.

From the previous JSON grammar of the Sobieski Mission discipline, we can illustrate the interest of the data check. The SobieskiMission will check any data passed to its MDODiscipline.execute() method before calling MDODiscipline._run().

from gemseo.problems.sobieski.disciplines import SobieskiMission
misssion = SobieskiMission()
misssion.execute(input_data={"y_14": [1.0, "a"]})


The y_14 value shall be an array of numbers. "a" is not a number and this prevents the execution of the discipline. GEMSEO raises an exception, the invalid property of the schema is highlighted, as well as the rules.

ERROR - 15:15:19 : Invalid data in : SobieskiMission_input on property : 'y_14 1',
error : 'a' is not of type u'number'
ERROR - 15:15:19 : JSON Grammar schema = {u'name': u'SobieskiMission_input', 'required': [u'x_shared', u'y_14', u'y_24', u'y_34'], u'id': u'#SobieskiMission_input', u'$schema': u'http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema', 'type': u'object', 'properties': {u'y_24': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'x_shared': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_34': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_14': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}}}  The existence of required inputs is also checked before running. The wrapper SobieskiMission has MDODiscipline.default_inputs set for all its inputs, so we need first to erase them to show that. from gemseo.problems.sobieski.disciplines import SobieskiMission misssion = SobieskiMission() misssion.default_inputs = {} misssion.execute(input_data={"y_14": [2.0, "a"]})  Note that all errors are displayed before raising the exception. This avoids to have to rerun the process multiple times to debug data errors one by one. In a single pass, we learn that the data x_shared, y_24, y_34 are required and missing, and that the second component of y_14 is of the wrong type. ERROR - 15:21:22 : Invalid data in : SobieskiMission_input on property : '', error : u'x_shared' is a required property ERROR - 15:21:22 : JSON Grammar schema = {u'name': u'SobieskiMission_input', 'required': [u'x_shared', u'y_14', u'y_24', u'y_34'], u'id': u'#SobieskiMission_input', u'$schema': u'http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema', 'type': u'object', 'properties': {u'y_24': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'x_shared': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_34': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_14': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}}}
ERROR - 15:21:22 : Invalid data in : SobieskiMission_input on property : '', error : u'y_24' is a required property
ERROR - 15:21:22 : JSON Grammar schema = {u'name': u'SobieskiMission_input', 'required': [u'x_shared', u'y_14', u'y_24', u'y_34'], u'id': u'#SobieskiMission_input', u'$schema': u'http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema', 'type': u'object', 'properties': {u'y_24': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'x_shared': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_34': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_14': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}}} ERROR - 15:21:22 : Invalid data in : SobieskiMission_input on property : '', error : u'y_34' is a required property ERROR - 15:21:22 : JSON Grammar schema = {u'name': u'SobieskiMission_input', 'required': [u'x_shared', u'y_14', u'y_24', u'y_34'], u'id': u'#SobieskiMission_input', u'$schema': u'http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema', 'type': u'object', 'properties': {u'y_24': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'x_shared': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_34': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_14': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}}}
ERROR - 15:21:22 : Invalid data in : SobieskiMission_input on property : 'y_14 1', error : 'a' is not of type u'number'
ERROR - 15:21:22 : JSON Grammar schema = {u'name': u'SobieskiMission_input', 'required': [u'x_shared', u'y_14', u'y_24', u'y_34'], u'id': u'#SobieskiMission_input', u'\$schema': u'http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema', 'type': u'object', 'properties': {u'y_24': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'x_shared': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_34': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}, u'y_14': {'items': {'type': u'number'}, 'type': u'array'}}}
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/home/Francois/workspace/|g|/mdo_examples/sellar_full_example.py", line 105, in <module>
misssion.execute(input_data={"y_14": [2.0, "a"]})
File "/home/Francois/workspace/|g|/gemseo/core/discipline.py", line 376, in execute
self.check_input_data(input_data)
File "/home/Francois/workspace/|g|/gemseo/core/discipline.py", line 803, in check_input_data
raise InvalidDataException("Invalid input data for: " + self.name)
gemseo.core.grammar.InvalidDataException: Invalid input data for: SobieskiMission


### Interfacing with other technologies¶

GEMSEO internally uses JSON schema based grammars, for the generic Multi Disciplinary Analyses and chain processes for instance. Therefore if one wants to use a specific technology for inputs and outputs description and checks, it is recommended to write a converter to the JSONGrammar or to generate a JSON Schema. This was performed multiple times for different workflow engine such as Model Center and WORMS, or specific simulation software technologies (Scilab). It is usually not a complex task, since GEMSEO only needs to deal with floating point arrays of data useful for the MDO formulation, i.e. data that are design variables, an objective function or constraints, or coupling variables. Therefore, many private data of the disciplines may be kept inside third party technologies, without any translation to GEMSEO grammars. It is the case of all configuration data, such as HPC configuration, input files of the simulation, meshes, which do not have to be exposed in GEMSEO grammars.

## Wrapping of execution¶

The effective execution of the MDODiscipline is defined by the MDODiscipline._run() method. It shall implement, in the subclasses, the calculation of outputs for given inputs. When GEMSEO needs to execute the discipline, it will call the public execute method, that will:

1. Add default inputs to the input_data if some inputs are not defined in input_data but exist in MDODiscipline.default_inputs.

2. Check if the last execution of the discipline was called with identical inputs, buffered in MDODiscipline._in_buffered, if yes, directly return MDODiscipline._out_buffered.

3. Cache the inputs, i.e. stores input_data in MDODiscipline.cache.

4. Check the input data against MDODiscipline.input_grammar.

5. If MDODiscipline.data_processor is not None: run the data pre-processor, to eventually convert data from GEMSEO types (typically numpy arrays) to discipline types as needed by the MDODiscipline._run() method.

6. Update MDODiscipline.status to RUNNING.

7. Call the MDODiscipline._run() method, that shall be defined by subclasses.

8. If MDODiscipline.data_processor is not None: run the post processor, to eventually convert data from discipline types to GEMSEO types (typically numpy arrays).

9. Check the output data.

10. Store the outputs, i.e. stores MDODiscipline.local_data() in MDODiscipline.cache.

11. Update the MDODiscipline.status to DONE or FAILED.

12. Update accumulated execution time MDODiscipline.exec_time.

A complete example of discipline integration is given in Tutorial: How to solve an MDO problem.