# Solve an ODE: the Van der Pol problem¶

from __future__ import annotations

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from numpy import array
from numpy import zeros

from gemseo.algos.ode.ode_problem import ODEProblem
from gemseo.algos.ode.ode_solvers_factory import ODESolversFactory
from gemseo.problems.ode.van_der_pol import VanDerPol


This tutorial describes how to solve an ordinary differential equation (ODE) problem with GEMSEO. A first-order ODE is a differential equation that can be written as

$\frac{ds(t)}{dt} = f(t, s(t))$

where the right-hand side of the equation $$f(t, s(t))$$ is a function of time $$t$$ and of a state $$s(t)$$ that returns another state $$\frac{ds(t)}{dt}$$ (see Hartman, Philip (2002) [1964], Ordinary differential equations, Classics in Applied Mathematics, vol. 38, Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics). To solve this equation, initial conditions must be set:

$s(t_0) = s_0$

For this example, we consider the Van der Pol equation as an example of a time-independent problem.

## Solving the Van der Pol time-independent problem¶

The Van der Pol problem describes the position over time of an oscillator with non-linear damping:

$\frac{d^2 x(t)}{dt^2} - \mu (1-x^2(t)) \frac{dx(t)}{dt} + x(t) = 0$

where $$x(t)$$ is the position coordinate at time $$t$$, and $$\mu$$ is the stiffness parameter.

To solve the Van der Pol problem with GEMSEO, we first need to model this second-order equation as a first-order equation. Let $$y = \frac{dx}{dt}$$ and $$s = \begin{pmatrix}x\\y\end{pmatrix}$$. Then the Van der Pol problem can be rewritten:

$\begin{split}\frac{ds(t)}{dt} = f(t, s(t)) = \begin{pmatrix} y(t) \\ \mu (1-x^2(t)) y(t) - x(t) \end{pmatrix}\end{split}$

### Step 1 : Defining the problem¶

mu = 5

def evaluate_f(time, state):
return state[1], mu * state[1] * (1 - state[0] ** 2) - state[0]

initial_state = array([2, -2 / 3])
initial_time = 0.0
final_time = 50.0
ode_problem = ODEProblem(evaluate_f, initial_state, initial_time, final_time)


By default, the Jacobian of the problem is approximated using the finite difference method. However, it is possible to define an explicit expression of the Jacobian and pass it to the problem. In the case of the Van der Pol problem, this would be:

def evaluate_jac(time, state):
jac = zeros((2, 2))
jac[1, 0] = -mu * 2 * state[1] * state[0] - 1
jac[0, 1] = 1
jac[1, 1] = mu * (1 - state[0] * state[0])
return jac

ode_problem = ODEProblem(
evaluate_f, initial_state, initial_time, final_time, jac=evaluate_jac
)


### Step 2: Solving the ODE problem¶

Whether the Jacobian is specified or not, once the problem is defined, the ODE solver is called on the ODEProblem by using the ODESolversFactory:

ODESolversFactory().execute(ode_problem)

/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.3.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/scipy/integrate/_ivp/ivp.py:616: UserWarning: The following arguments have no effect for a chosen solver: min_step, jac.
solver = method(fun, t0, y0, tf, vectorized=vectorized, **options)

ODEResult(time_vector=array([0.00000000e+00, 3.74532749e-02, 1.03428167e-01, 1.72202666e-01,
2.49134295e-01, 3.37974639e-01, 4.45392319e-01, 5.81153227e-01,
7.61409032e-01, 1.00893026e+00, 1.31816564e+00, 1.63105754e+00,
1.92924608e+00, 2.24281802e+00, 2.59456065e+00, 2.97621895e+00,
3.39050042e+00, 3.86048412e+00, 4.44478615e+00, 4.69135185e+00,
4.84571211e+00, 5.00007236e+00, 5.07314736e+00, 5.14622236e+00,
5.20628412e+00, 5.26634588e+00, 5.31863072e+00, 5.37091555e+00,
5.42944041e+00, 5.50218147e+00, 5.59077871e+00, 5.70214103e+00,
5.84768592e+00, 6.04941392e+00, 6.35882583e+00, 6.63377208e+00,
6.90871832e+00, 7.18731601e+00, 7.47587710e+00, 7.78663249e+00,
8.12193118e+00, 8.47939066e+00, 8.86396069e+00, 9.28743242e+00,
9.77435635e+00, 1.02491719e+01, 1.05013670e+01, 1.06512736e+01,
1.08011802e+01, 1.08771177e+01, 1.09530552e+01, 1.10132681e+01,
1.10734810e+01, 1.11253580e+01, 1.11772350e+01, 1.12362346e+01,
1.13093179e+01, 1.13984316e+01, 1.15105216e+01, 1.16572100e+01,
1.18608945e+01, 1.21748138e+01, 1.24467397e+01, 1.27186657e+01,
1.29981260e+01, 1.32897352e+01, 1.36018848e+01, 1.39369708e+01,
1.42948273e+01, 1.46805863e+01, 1.51056174e+01, 1.55953182e+01,
1.60614872e+01, 1.63105618e+01, 1.64584845e+01, 1.66064072e+01,
1.66787060e+01, 1.67510048e+01, 1.68130053e+01, 1.68750058e+01,
1.69273591e+01, 1.69797124e+01, 1.70381842e+01, 1.71108942e+01,
1.71994403e+01, 1.73107277e+01, 1.74561489e+01, 1.76576578e+01,
1.79665784e+01, 1.82419129e+01, 1.85172475e+01, 1.87958242e+01,
1.90841554e+01, 1.93948765e+01, 1.97303185e+01, 2.00878750e+01,
2.04725021e+01, 2.08960759e+01, 2.13831962e+01, 2.18573634e+01,
2.21093633e+01, 2.22591224e+01, 2.24088815e+01, 2.24848402e+01,
2.25607989e+01, 2.26209580e+01, 2.26811171e+01, 2.27329936e+01,
2.27848702e+01, 2.28438721e+01, 2.29169574e+01, 2.30060740e+01,
2.31181680e+01, 2.32648621e+01, 2.34685561e+01, 2.37824982e+01,
2.40544125e+01, 2.43263269e+01, 2.46057957e+01, 2.48974259e+01,
2.52095892e+01, 2.55446813e+01, 2.59025480e+01, 2.62883237e+01,
2.67133785e+01, 2.72031227e+01, 2.76691667e+01, 2.79181865e+01,
2.80660802e+01, 2.82139738e+01, 2.82864685e+01, 2.83589632e+01,
2.84208246e+01, 2.84826860e+01, 2.85350130e+01, 2.85873400e+01,
2.86458433e+01, 2.87185763e+01, 2.88071568e+01, 2.89184928e+01,
2.90639904e+01, 2.92656299e+01, 2.95748477e+01, 2.98499848e+01,
3.01251219e+01, 3.04037521e+01, 3.06922812e+01, 3.10030948e+01,
3.13385224e+01, 3.16961024e+01, 3.20808051e+01, 3.25044774e+01,
3.29917723e+01, 3.34653659e+01, 3.37171885e+01, 3.38668170e+01,
3.40164454e+01, 3.40921259e+01, 3.41678063e+01, 3.42281267e+01,
3.42884472e+01, 3.43403581e+01, 3.43922691e+01, 3.44512341e+01,
3.45242937e+01, 3.46133708e+01, 3.47254090e+01, 3.48720149e+01,
3.50755574e+01, 3.53891472e+01, 3.56613041e+01, 3.59334609e+01,
3.62128649e+01, 3.65042628e+01, 3.68163278e+01, 3.71514459e+01,
3.75092906e+01, 3.78949860e+01, 3.83199373e+01, 3.88094972e+01,
3.92760755e+01, 3.95253273e+01, 3.96733450e+01, 3.98213626e+01,
3.98930355e+01, 3.99647084e+01, 4.00271482e+01, 4.00895880e+01,
4.01420268e+01, 4.01944656e+01, 4.02528341e+01, 4.03254689e+01,
4.04139021e+01, 4.05250303e+01, 4.06702014e+01, 4.08712824e+01,
4.11792328e+01, 4.14552096e+01, 4.17311864e+01, 4.20095911e+01,
4.22972773e+01, 4.26076948e+01, 4.29431828e+01, 4.33006627e+01,
4.36850438e+01, 4.41082958e+01, 4.45948478e+01, 4.50709142e+01,
4.53234712e+01, 4.54736619e+01, 4.56238526e+01, 4.56989836e+01,
4.57741146e+01, 4.58349486e+01, 4.58957825e+01, 4.59477578e+01,
4.59997331e+01, 4.60586192e+01, 4.61316207e+01, 4.62206109e+01,
4.63325270e+01, 4.64789422e+01, 4.66821594e+01, 4.69949923e+01,
4.72676485e+01, 4.75403046e+01, 4.78195481e+01, 4.81104158e+01,
4.84222296e+01, 4.87573635e+01, 4.91151157e+01, 4.95005786e+01,
4.99252199e+01, 5.00000000e+01]), state_vector=array([[ 2.        ,  1.97967957,  1.95774631,  1.94308024,  1.93023242,
1.91689798,  1.90127548,  1.88148097,  1.85471391,  1.81683912,
1.7674537 ,  1.71475964,  1.6615001 ,  1.60161846,  1.52847272,
1.43943516,  1.3256495 ,  1.15704393,  0.76442896,  0.32727557,
-0.31175092, -1.40669805, -1.7830636 , -1.95322441, -2.00372775,
-2.01952524, -2.02129221, -2.01828892, -2.01245847, -2.00373298,
-1.99229352, -1.97745799, -1.95768762, -1.92970087, -1.88539809,
-1.84447489, -1.80189035, -1.75680714, -1.70773982, -1.65170545,
-1.58669355, -1.51069031, -1.41827814, -1.29674842, -1.10699929,
-0.76489516, -0.31306239,  0.31498705,  1.38039866,  1.77914236,
1.95543329,  2.00447559,  2.01959313,  2.02109742,  2.01802987,
2.01210952,  2.00331643,  1.99179557,  1.97685256,  1.95691435,
1.92863369,  1.88362919,  1.8430957 ,  1.80093013,  1.75565891,
1.70599636,  1.64958478,  1.58443578,  1.50809415,  1.41497353,
1.2921288 ,  1.09862316,  0.75519633,  0.29778774, -0.33465201,
-1.38930815, -1.77053756, -1.94734159, -2.00247818, -2.01931568,
-2.02112164, -2.01812688, -2.01230701, -2.00358771, -1.99215508,
-1.97732845, -1.957573  , -1.92961428, -1.88537973, -1.84439696,
-1.80174778, -1.75666125, -1.70762607, -1.65159047, -1.58653994,
-1.51049806, -1.41804162, -1.29642152, -1.10641002, -0.76425327,
-0.31201359,  0.31628606,  1.38088686,  1.77947218,  1.95556873,
2.00449083,  2.01958186,  2.02108544,  2.01801763,  2.01209688,
2.00330337,  1.99178199,  1.97683827,  1.95689902,  1.92861664,
1.88360813,  1.84307559,  1.800911  ,  1.75563747,  1.70597007,
1.64955415,  1.58440132,  1.50805357,  1.41492229,  1.29205718,
1.09849233,  0.75503441,  0.2975422 , -0.33498128, -1.38948247,
-1.77136104, -1.94792497, -2.00260855, -2.019325  , -2.02111299,
-2.0181137 , -2.0122878 , -2.00356396, -1.99212591, -1.97729214,
-1.95752556, -1.92954733, -1.88526671, -1.84430948, -1.80168776,
-1.75658958, -1.70751595, -1.65145576, -1.58639673, -1.51033379,
-1.41783264, -1.29612984, -1.10588414, -0.76367549, -0.31107458,
0.31745544,  1.38133954,  1.77869893,  1.95493428,  2.0043413 ,
2.01956479,  2.02108905,  2.01802607,  2.0121123 ,  2.00332388,
1.99180863,  1.97687302,  1.95694653,  1.92868663,  1.88373246,
1.8431679 ,  1.80096886,  1.75570879,  1.70608593,  1.6496962 ,
1.58455019,  1.5082239 ,  1.41513991,  1.29236226,  1.09904929,
0.75572133,  0.29858578, -0.33358466, -1.38874819, -1.76789103,
-1.94545094, -2.00205344, -2.01928362, -2.02114867, -2.01816893,
-2.01236884, -2.00366444, -1.99224954, -1.97744627, -1.95772729,
-1.92983242, -1.88574821, -1.84468243, -1.80194396, -1.7568951 ,
-1.70798512, -1.65203007, -1.58700751, -1.51103419, -1.41872343,
-1.29737256, -1.10812146, -0.76610186, -0.31505007,  0.3125453 ,
1.37952317,  1.77574881,  1.95320115,  2.00401128,  2.019591  ,
2.0211568 ,  2.01810407,  2.01220512,  2.00342814,  1.99192682,
1.97700963,  1.95711174,  1.92890163,  1.88406686,  1.84343944,
1.80117292,  1.75594906,  1.7064321 ,  1.65011259,  1.58499882,
1.50874298,  1.41579976,  1.29328562,  1.26847016],
[-0.66666667, -0.4404801 , -0.25499374, -0.18348972, -0.15577052,
-0.14663307, -0.14512263, -0.14681405, -0.1503292 , -0.15589715,
-0.16395156, -0.17351351, -0.18431529, -0.1983367 , -0.21879763,
-0.25007257, -0.30446515, -0.43225986, -1.14032821, -2.78253762,
-5.87925401, -6.63373715, -3.5842388 , -1.32636396, -0.47084575,
-0.10911561,  0.0237915 ,  0.08316757,  0.11186977,  0.12564939,
0.13153381,  0.13451371,  0.13704778,  0.14041924,  0.14612705,
0.15185351,  0.15830476,  0.16576471,  0.17477948,  0.18645538,
0.2022157 ,  0.22442633,  0.25878581,  0.32169987,  0.48568998,
1.13780434,  2.8468042 ,  5.89223803,  6.76190828,  3.62624714,
1.28934678,  0.45330457,  0.10148692, -0.0265402 , -0.08410449,
-0.11240577, -0.12588692, -0.13165005, -0.13459634, -0.13713991,
-0.14055012, -0.14636989, -0.1520532 , -0.15844717, -0.16596041,
-0.17512287, -0.18693224, -0.2028109 , -0.22526976, -0.26019893,
-0.32460754, -0.49548543, -1.16465928, -2.91764946, -5.97922066,
-6.7172771 , -3.7227132 , -1.41443196, -0.49147887, -0.11023472,
0.02339507,  0.08304243,  0.11180886,  0.12563523,  0.13153937,
0.13452591,  0.13706069,  0.14042976,  0.14612878,  0.15186477,
0.15832829,  0.16579056,  0.17480129,  0.18648071,  0.20225624,
0.22448875,  0.25888647,  0.32190419,  0.48637077,  1.13956614,
2.85164903,  5.89802219,  6.75943137,  3.62232651,  1.28702372,
0.45277044,  0.10146589, -0.02654838, -0.08410798, -0.11240837,
-0.12588882, -0.13165169, -0.13459798, -0.13714169, -0.14055221,
-0.14637274, -0.15205612, -0.15845015, -0.16596413, -0.17512803,
-0.18693912, -0.20282002, -0.225283  , -0.26022095, -0.32465297,
-0.49564047, -1.16511186, -2.9187932 , -5.98066631, -6.71640819,
-3.713417  , -1.40536156, -0.48886154, -0.10971734,  0.02358231,
0.08310671,  0.1118454 ,  0.12565115,  0.13154686,  0.13453101,
0.13706636,  0.14043797,  0.14614426,  0.15187742,  0.15833714,
0.16580274,  0.17482294,  0.18651094,  0.2022939 ,  0.22454195,
0.25897547,  0.32208668,  0.48697938,  1.14115384,  2.85598921,
5.90322458,  6.75714114,  3.63108751,  1.29695583,  0.45569309,
0.10207002, -0.02633207, -0.08403553, -0.11236757, -0.12587153,
-0.13164395, -0.13459293, -0.13713599, -0.14054362, -0.14635557,
-0.15204274, -0.15844171, -0.16595202, -0.17510512, -0.18690706,
-0.20278068, -0.22522748, -0.26012744, -0.32445955, -0.49498091,
-1.16319281, -2.91393311, -5.97453203, -6.72006816, -3.75249154,
-1.44372935, -0.49996318, -0.1119336 ,  0.02277964,  0.0828308 ,
0.11168861,  0.12558286,  0.13151484,  0.13450929,  0.13704223,
0.14040303,  0.14607836,  0.15182347,  0.15829937,  0.16575084,
0.17473074,  0.18638213,  0.20213336,  0.22431526,  0.25859647,
0.32131034,  0.484397  ,  1.13449837,  2.83763038,  5.88135126,
6.76637197,  3.6653422 ,  1.32503616,  0.46332751,  0.10328245,
-0.02589419, -0.0838847 , -0.11227937, -0.1258301 , -0.13162136,
-0.13457531, -0.13711644, -0.14051725, -0.14630971, -0.15200339,
-0.15841099, -0.16591083, -0.17503693, -0.18681334, -0.20266214,
-0.22505838, -0.25984428, -0.32387533, -0.34017088]]), n_func_evaluations=1730, n_jac_evaluations=0, solver_message='The solver successfully reached the end of the integration interval.', is_converged=True, solver_options={'first_step': None, 'max_step': inf, 'rtol': 0.001, 'atol': 1e-06, 'min_step': 0}, solver_name='RK45')


By default, the Runge-Kutta method of order 4(5) ("RK45") is used, but other algorithms can be applied by specifying the option algo_name in ODESolversFactory().execute(). See more information on available algorithms in the SciPy documentation.

### Step 3: Examining the results¶

The convergence of the algorithm can be known by examining ODEProblem.is_converged and ODEProblem.solver_message.

The solution of the ODEProblem on the user-specified time interval can be accessed through the vectors ODEProblem.states and ODEProblem.times.

plt.plot(ode_problem.result.time_vector, ode_problem.result.state_vector[0])
plt.plot(ode_problem.result.time_vector, ode_problem.result.state_vector[1])
plt.show()


### Shortcut¶

The class VanDerPol is available in the package gemseo.problems.ode, so it just needs to be imported to be used.

ode_problem = VanDerPol()
ODESolversFactory().execute(ode_problem)

ODEResult(time_vector=array([0.00000000e+00, 3.02889880e-04, 6.05779761e-04, 9.19543822e-04,
1.23318623e-03, 1.54831722e-03, 1.86699348e-03, 2.19411325e-03,
2.53977274e-03, 2.92128804e-03, 3.36329597e-03, 3.89893117e-03,
4.57707708e-03, 5.47709067e-03, 6.70631653e-03, 7.94054333e-03,
9.04797379e-03, 1.01554042e-02, 1.12779072e-02, 1.23918108e-02,
1.34830214e-02, 1.45644470e-02, 1.56611247e-02, 1.67810456e-02,
1.79042147e-02, 1.90056269e-02, 2.00859937e-02, 2.11712234e-02,
2.22825463e-02, 2.34107825e-02, 2.45253095e-02, 2.56111902e-02,
2.66876034e-02, 2.77856208e-02, 2.89120756e-02, 3.00392570e-02,
3.11371929e-02, 3.22106958e-02, 3.32937591e-02, 3.44105558e-02,
3.55457617e-02, 3.66602394e-02, 3.77390477e-02, 3.88096880e-02,
3.99102151e-02, 4.10450773e-02, 4.21765437e-02, 4.32693318e-02,
4.43343877e-02, 4.54156305e-02, 4.65399445e-02, 4.76834857e-02,
4.87968566e-02, 4.98664641e-02, 5.09306177e-02, 5.20352809e-02,
5.31808038e-02, 5.43166166e-02, 5.54020844e-02, 5.64569315e-02,
5.75370351e-02, 5.86714478e-02, 5.98247635e-02, 6.09354745e-02,
6.19933612e-02, 6.30504461e-02, 6.41614238e-02, 6.53202405e-02,
6.64601279e-02, 6.75355546e-02, 6.85783247e-02, 6.96584071e-02,
7.08060804e-02, 7.19705807e-02, 7.30764881e-02, 7.41197994e-02,
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Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 0.210 seconds)

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