MDO formulations for a toy example in aerostructure

from __future__ import annotations

from copy import deepcopy

from gemseo.api import configure_logger
from gemseo.api import create_discipline
from gemseo.api import create_scenario
from gemseo.api import generate_n2_plot
from gemseo.problems.aerostructure.aerostructure_design_space import (
    AerostructureDesignSpace,
)

configure_logger()


algo_options = {
    "xtol_rel": 1e-8,
    "xtol_abs": 1e-8,
    "ftol_rel": 1e-8,
    "ftol_abs": 1e-8,
    "ineq_tolerance": 1e-5,
    "eq_tolerance": 1e-3,
}

Create discipline

First, we create disciplines (aero, structure, mission) with dummy formulas using the AnalyticDiscipline class.

aero_formulas = {
    "drag": "0.1*((sweep/360)**2 + 200 + "
    + "thick_airfoils**2-thick_airfoils -4*displ)",
    "forces": "10*sweep + 0.2*thick_airfoils-0.2*displ",
    "lift": "(sweep + 0.2*thick_airfoils-2.*displ)/3000.",
}
aerodynamics = create_discipline(
    "AnalyticDiscipline", name="Aerodynamics", expressions=aero_formulas
)
struc_formulas = {
    "mass": "4000*(sweep/360)**3 + 200000 + " + "100*thick_panels +200.0*forces",
    "reserve_fact": "-3*sweep " + "-6*thick_panels+0.1*forces+55",
    "displ": "2*sweep + 3*thick_panels-2.*forces",
}
structure = create_discipline(
    "AnalyticDiscipline", name="Structure", expressions=struc_formulas
)
mission_formulas = {"range": "8e11*lift/(mass*drag)"}
mission = create_discipline(
    "AnalyticDiscipline", name="Mission", expressions=mission_formulas
)

disciplines = [aerodynamics, structure, mission]

We can see that structure and aerodynamics are strongly coupled:

generate_n2_plot(disciplines, save=False, show=True)
plot aerostructure

Create an MDO scenario with MDF formulation

Then, we create an MDO scenario based on the MDF formulation

design_space = AerostructureDesignSpace()
scenario = create_scenario(
    disciplines=disciplines,
    formulation="MDF",
    objective_name="range",
    design_space=design_space,
    maximize_objective=True,
)
scenario.add_constraint("reserve_fact", "ineq", value=0.5)
scenario.add_constraint("lift", "eq", value=0.5)
scenario.execute({"algo": "NLOPT_SLSQP", "max_iter": 10, "algo_options": algo_options})
scenario.post_process("OptHistoryView", save=False, show=True)
  • Evolution of the optimization variables
  • Evolution of the objective value
  • Distance to the optimum
  • Hessian diagonal approximation
  • Evolution of the inequality constraints
  • Evolution of the equality constraints
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/develop/lib/python3.9/site-packages/gemseo/algos/design_space.py:459: ComplexWarning: Casting complex values to real discards the imaginary part
  self.__current_value[name] = array_value.astype(
    INFO - 11:19:50: Variable reserve_fact was removed from the Design Space, it is not an input of any discipline.
    INFO - 11:19:50:
    INFO - 11:19:50: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:50: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:50:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:50:    MDO formulation: MDF
    INFO - 11:19:50: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:50:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils, thick_panels, sweep)
    INFO - 11:19:50:    with respect to sweep, thick_airfoils, thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:50:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:50:       reserve_fact(thick_airfoils, thick_panels, sweep) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:50:       lift(thick_airfoils, thick_panels, sweep) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:50:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:50:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:50:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:50:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:50:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   15  |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:50:    | thick_panels   |      1      |   3   |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:50:    | sweep          |      10     |   25  |      35     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:50:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:50: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:50: ...   0%|          | 0/10 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:50: ...  30%|███       | 3/10 [00:00<00:00, 79.10 it/sec, obj=-4.25e+3]
   ERROR - 11:19:50: NLopt run failed: NLopt roundoff-limited, RoundoffLimited
    INFO - 11:19:50: ...  30%|███       | 3/10 [00:00<00:00, 76.63 it/sec, obj=-4.25e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:50: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:50:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:50:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:50:       Message:  GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:50:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 4
    INFO - 11:19:50:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:50:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:50:       Objective: -4509.505446938985
    INFO - 11:19:50:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:50:          lift - 0.5 = 1.4988010832439613e-14
    INFO - 11:19:50:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = 1.1013668199666427e-08
    INFO - 11:19:50:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:50:       +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:50:       | name           | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:50:       +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:50:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |         5         |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:50:       | thick_panels   |      1      | 3.225589223849015 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:50:       | sweep          |      10     | 24.99326599298144 |      35     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:50:       +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:50: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.143505) ***

<gemseo.post.opt_history_view.OptHistoryView object at 0x7f3d0ac9eb20>

Create an MDO scenario with bilevel formulation

Then, we create an MDO scenario based on the bilevel formulation

sub_scenario_options = {
    "max_iter": 5,
    "algo": "NLOPT_SLSQP",
    "algo_options": algo_options,
}
design_space_ref = AerostructureDesignSpace()
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/develop/lib/python3.9/site-packages/gemseo/algos/design_space.py:459: ComplexWarning: Casting complex values to real discards the imaginary part
  self.__current_value[name] = array_value.astype(

Create the aeronautics sub-scenario

For this purpose, we create a first sub-scenario to maximize the range with respect to the thick airfoils, based on the aerodynamics discipline.

design_space_aero = deepcopy(design_space_ref).filter(["thick_airfoils"])
aero_scenario = create_scenario(
    disciplines=[aerodynamics, mission],
    formulation="DisciplinaryOpt",
    objective_name="range",
    design_space=design_space_aero,
    maximize_objective=True,
)
aero_scenario.default_inputs = sub_scenario_options

Create the structure sub-scenario

We create a second sub-scenario to maximize the range with respect to the thick panels, based on the structure discipline.

design_space_struct = deepcopy(design_space_ref).filter(["thick_panels"])
struct_scenario = create_scenario(
    disciplines=[structure, mission],
    formulation="DisciplinaryOpt",
    objective_name="range",
    design_space=design_space_struct,
    maximize_objective=True,
)
struct_scenario.default_inputs = sub_scenario_options

Create the system scenario

Lastly, we build a system scenario to maximize the range with respect to the sweep, which is a shared variable, based on the previous sub-scenarios.

design_space_system = deepcopy(design_space_ref).filter(["sweep"])
system_scenario = create_scenario(
    disciplines=[aero_scenario, struct_scenario, mission],
    formulation="BiLevel",
    objective_name="range",
    design_space=design_space_system,
    maximize_objective=True,
    inner_mda_name="MDAJacobi",
    tolerance=1e-8,
)
system_scenario.add_constraint("reserve_fact", "ineq", value=0.5)
system_scenario.add_constraint("lift", "eq", value=0.5)
system_scenario.execute(
    {"algo": "NLOPT_COBYLA", "max_iter": 7, "algo_options": algo_options}
)
system_scenario.post_process("OptHistoryView", save=False, show=True)
  • Evolution of the optimization variables
  • Evolution of the objective value
  • Distance to the optimum
  • Evolution of the inequality constraints
  • Evolution of the equality constraints
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: MDOScenario MDOScenario Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: BiLevel
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(sweep)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to sweep
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(sweep) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(sweep) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +-------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name  | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +-------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | sweep |      10     |   25  |      35     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +-------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_COBYLA:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/7 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   15  |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
 WARNING - 11:19:52: Optimization found no feasible point !  The least infeasible point is selected.
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  40%|████      | 2/5 [00:00<00:00, 434.66 it/sec, obj=-4.25e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: NLOPT_MAXEVAL_REACHED: Optimization stopped because maxeval (above) was reached
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 8
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
 WARNING - 11:19:52:       The solution is not feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4500.624867974909
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = 0.005333333333333523
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.022634) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      |   3   |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  80%|████████  | 4/5 [00:00<00:00, 306.85 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Successive iterates of the objective function are closer than ftol_rel or ftol_abs. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4506.645473559234
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = 1.1943299682570796e-09
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 3.249999999800945 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.027337) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  14%|█▍        | 1/7 [00:00<00:00, 61.35 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
 WARNING - 11:19:52: Optimization found no feasible point !  The least infeasible point is selected.
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  20%|██        | 1/5 [00:00<00:00, 1134.82 it/sec, obj=-4.27e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: NLOPT_MAXEVAL_REACHED: Optimization stopped because maxeval (above) was reached
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 8
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
 WARNING - 11:19:52:       The solution is not feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4267.901616337711
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = 0.1271388888895526
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.007477) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      | 3.249999999800945 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  80%|████████  | 4/5 [00:00<00:00, 428.90 it/sec, obj=-4.27e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Successive iterates of the objective function are closer than ftol_rel or ftol_abs. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4270.014801163452
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = 2.0847750192842796e-09
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 1.765277777433633 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.014771) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
 WARNING - 11:19:52: Optimization found no feasible point !  The least infeasible point is selected.
    INFO - 11:19:52: ... 100%|██████████| 5/5 [00:00<00:00, 416.09 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Maximum number of iterations reached. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 7
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
 WARNING - 11:19:52:       The solution is not feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -3831.8061828224563
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = -0.002338332392893716
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |   25  |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.015249) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      | 1.765277777433633 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
   ERROR - 11:19:52: NLopt run failed: NLopt roundoff-limited, RoundoffLimited
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  60%|██████    | 3/5 [00:00<00:00, 486.97 it/sec, obj=-3.82e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message:  GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 4
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -3818.589637887974
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = -1.332978172285948e-10
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 3.414587193256478 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.013418) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   25  |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
 WARNING - 11:19:52: Optimization found no feasible point !  The least infeasible point is selected.
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  40%|████      | 2/5 [00:00<00:00, 699.66 it/sec, obj=-3.82e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: NLOPT_MAXEVAL_REACHED: Optimization stopped because maxeval (above) was reached
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 8
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
 WARNING - 11:19:52:       The solution is not feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4490.5401741987625
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = 0.009181047336962123
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.010393) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      | 3.414587193256478 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
   ERROR - 11:19:52: NLopt run failed: NLopt roundoff-limited, RoundoffLimited
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  60%|██████    | 3/5 [00:00<00:00, 479.36 it/sec, obj=-4.5e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message:  GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 4
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4503.59456876238
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = -2.689262146304827e-10
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 3.256301635564776 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.013644) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  57%|█████▋    | 4/7 [00:00<00:00, 28.38 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ... 100%|██████████| 5/5 [00:00<00:00, 360.60 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Maximum number of iterations reached. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 7
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -3854.081803199325
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = 0.0
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      | 24.35677419636821 |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.017157) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      | 3.256301635564776 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
   ERROR - 11:19:52: NLopt run failed: NLopt roundoff-limited, RoundoffLimited
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  40%|████      | 2/5 [00:00<00:00, 744.04 it/sec, obj=-3.84e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message:  GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 3
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -3843.3818343295015
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = 8.733991307963151e-11
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 3.303233602225065 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.010546) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      | 24.35677419636821 |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
 WARNING - 11:19:52: Optimization found no feasible point !  The least infeasible point is selected.
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  40%|████      | 2/5 [00:00<00:00, 627.97 it/sec, obj=-3.85e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: NLOPT_MAXEVAL_REACHED: Optimization stopped because maxeval (above) was reached
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 8
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
 WARNING - 11:19:52:       The solution is not feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4492.389203681739
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = 0.008585874885500111
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.011331) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      | 3.303233602225065 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  80%|████████  | 4/5 [00:00<00:00, 433.91 it/sec, obj=-4.5e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Successive iterates of the objective function are closer than ftol_rel or ftol_abs. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4504.850157627395
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = 1.6281845205412537e-08
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 3.264536841336751 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.014793) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Aerodynamics Mission
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_airfoils)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_airfoils
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       lift(thick_airfoils) == 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ... 100%|██████████| 5/5 [00:00<00:00, 358.71 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Maximum number of iterations reached. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 7
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4509.5196419107815
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = -0.00013691254268788366
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name           | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_airfoils |      5      |   5   |      25     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +----------------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.017046) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** Start MDOScenario execution ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: MDOScenario
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Disciplines: Mission Structure
    INFO - 11:19:52:    MDO formulation: DisciplinaryOpt
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization problem:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    minimize -range(thick_panels)
    INFO - 11:19:52:    with respect to thick_panels
    INFO - 11:19:52:    subject to constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       reserve_fact(thick_panels) <= 0.5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    over the design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:    | thick_panels |      1      | 3.264536841336751 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:    +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: Solving optimization problem with algorithm NLOPT_SLSQP:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...   0%|          | 0/5 [00:00<?, ?it]
    INFO - 11:19:52:
    INFO - 11:19:52: ...  80%|████████  | 4/5 [00:00<00:00, 420.41 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Successive iterates of the objective function are closer than ftol_rel or ftol_abs. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 5
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4509.58328735659
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = 6.781846195735852e-10
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name         | lower_bound |       value       | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | thick_panels |      1      | 3.225021426576647 |      20     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +--------------+-------------+-------------------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.015009) ***
    INFO - 11:19:52: ... 100%|██████████| 7/7 [00:00<00:00, 17.65 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: ... 100%|██████████| 7/7 [00:00<00:00, 17.57 it/sec, obj=-4.51e+3]
    INFO - 11:19:52: Optimization result:
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Optimizer info:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Status: None
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Message: Maximum number of iterations reached. GEMSEO Stopped the driver
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Number of calls to the objective function by the optimizer: 9
    INFO - 11:19:52:    Solution:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       The solution is feasible.
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Objective: -4509.243436177997
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Standardized constraints:
    INFO - 11:19:52:          lift - 0.5 = 5.555555621883368e-05
    INFO - 11:19:52:          reserve_fact - 0.5 = -0.1583333321191276
    INFO - 11:19:52:       Design space:
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +-------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | name  | lower_bound | value | upper_bound | type  |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +-------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52:       | sweep |      10     |   25  |      35     | float |
    INFO - 11:19:52:       +-------+-------------+-------+-------------+-------+
    INFO - 11:19:52: *** End MDOScenario execution (time: 0:00:00.411399) ***

<gemseo.post.opt_history_view.OptHistoryView object at 0x7f3d3e0133d0>

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