# Quality measure for surrogate model comparison¶

In this example we use the quality measure class to compare the performances of a mixture of experts (MoE) and a random forest algorithm under different circumstances. We will consider two different datasets: A 1D function, and the Rosenbrock dataset (two inputs and one output).

## Import¶

from __future__ import annotations

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from gemseo import configure_logger
from gemseo import create_benchmark_dataset
from gemseo.datasets.io_dataset import IODataset
from gemseo.mlearning import create_regression_model
from gemseo.mlearning.quality_measures.mse_measure import MSEMeasure
from gemseo.mlearning.transformers.scaler.min_max_scaler import MinMaxScaler
from numpy import hstack
from numpy import linspace
from numpy import meshgrid
from numpy import sin

configure_logger()

<RootLogger root (INFO)>


## Test on 1D dataset¶

In this section we create a dataset from an analytical expression of a 1D function, and compare the errors of the two regression models.

### Create 1D dataset from expression¶

def data_gen(x):
return 3 + 0.5 * sin(14 * x) * (x <= 0.7) + (x > 0.7) * (0.8 + 6 * (x - 1) ** 2)

x = linspace(0, 1, 25)
y = data_gen(x)

data = hstack((x[:, None], y[:, None]))
variables = ["x", "y"]
sizes = {"x": 1, "y": 1}
groups = {"x": IODataset.INPUT_GROUP, "y": IODataset.OUTPUT_GROUP}

dataset = IODataset.from_array(data, variables, sizes, groups)


### Plot 1D data¶

x_refined = linspace(0, 1, 500)
y_refined = data_gen(x_refined)
plt.plot(x_refined, y_refined)
plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.show()


### Create regression algorithms¶

moe = create_regression_model(
"MOERegressor", dataset, transformer={"outputs": MinMaxScaler()}
)

moe.set_clusterer("GaussianMixture", n_components=4)
moe.set_classifier("KNNClassifier", n_neighbors=3)
moe.set_regressor(
"PolynomialRegressor", degree=5, l2_penalty_ratio=1, penalty_level=0.00005
)

randfor = create_regression_model(
"RandomForestRegressor",
dataset,
transformer={"outputs": MinMaxScaler()},
n_estimators=50,
)


### Compute measures (Mean Squared Error)¶

measure_moe = MSEMeasure(moe)
measure_randfor = MSEMeasure(randfor)


#### Evaluate on training set directly (keyword: ‘learn’)¶

print("Learn:")
print("Error MoE:", measure_moe.evaluate_learn())
print("Error Random Forest:", measure_randfor.evaluate_learn())

plt.figure()
plt.plot(x_refined, moe.predict(x_refined[:, None]).flatten(), label="MoE")
plt.plot(x_refined, randfor.predict(x_refined[:, None]).flatten(), label="RndFr")
plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.legend()
plt.ylim(2, 5)
plt.show()

plt.figure()
plt.plot(
x_refined, moe.predict_local_model(x_refined[:, None], 0).flatten(), label="MoE 0"
)
plt.plot(
x_refined, moe.predict_local_model(x_refined[:, None], 1).flatten(), label="MoE 1"
)
plt.plot(
x_refined, moe.predict_local_model(x_refined[:, None], 2).flatten(), label="MoE 2"
)
plt.plot(
x_refined, moe.predict_local_model(x_refined[:, None], 3).flatten(), label="MoE 3"
)
plt.plot(x_refined, moe.predict(x_refined[:, None]).flatten(), label="MoE")
plt.plot(x_refined, randfor.predict(x_refined[:, None]).flatten(), label="RndFr")
plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.legend()
plt.ylim(2, 5)
plt.show()

Learn:
Error MoE: [0.00130025]
Error Random Forest: [0.01388602]


#### Evaluate using cross validation (keyword: ‘kfolds’)¶

In order to better consider the generalization error, perform a k-folds cross validation algorithm. We also plot the predictions from the last iteration of the algorithm.

print("K-folds:")
print("Error MoE:", measure_moe.evaluate_kfolds())
print("Error Random Forest:", measure_randfor.evaluate_kfolds())

print("Loo:")
print("Error MoE:", measure_moe.evaluate_loo())
print("Error Random Forest:", measure_randfor.evaluate_loo())

plt.plot(x_refined, moe.predict(x_refined[:, None]).flatten(), label="MoE")
plt.plot(
x_refined, randfor.predict(x_refined[:, None]).flatten(), label="Random Forest"
)
plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.legend()
plt.show()

K-folds:
Error MoE: [0.00157915]
Error Random Forest: [0.00931296]
Loo:
Error MoE: [0.00221518]
Error Random Forest: [0.01085501]


## Test on 2D dataset (Rosenbrock)¶

In this section, we load the Rosenbrock dataset, and compare the error measures for the two regression models.

### Load dataset¶

dataset = create_benchmark_dataset("RosenbrockDataset", opt_naming=False)
x = dataset.input_dataset.to_numpy()
y = dataset.output_dataset.to_numpy()
Y = y.reshape((10, 10))

refinement = 100
x_refined = linspace(-2, 2, refinement)
X_1_refined, X_2_refined = meshgrid(x_refined, x_refined)
x_1_refined, x_2_refined = X_1_refined.flatten(), X_2_refined.flatten()
x_refined = hstack((x_1_refined[:, None], x_2_refined[:, None]))

print(dataset)

GROUP        inputs           outputs
VARIABLE          x             rosen
COMPONENT         0    1            0
0         -2.000000 -2.0  3609.000000
1         -1.555556 -2.0  1959.952599
2         -1.111111 -2.0  1050.699741
3         -0.666667 -2.0   600.308642
4         -0.222222 -2.0   421.490779
..              ...  ...          ...
95         0.222222  2.0   381.095717
96         0.666667  2.0   242.086420
97         1.111111  2.0    58.600975
98         1.555556  2.0    17.927907
99         2.000000  2.0   401.000000

[100 rows x 3 columns]


### Create regression algorithms¶

moe = create_regression_model(
"MOERegressor", dataset, transformer={"outputs": MinMaxScaler()}
)
moe.set_clusterer("KMeans", n_clusters=3)
moe.set_classifier("KNNClassifier", n_neighbors=5)
moe.set_regressor(
"PolynomialRegressor", degree=5, l2_penalty_ratio=1, penalty_level=0.1
)

randfor = create_regression_model(
"RandomForestRegressor",
dataset,
transformer={"outputs": MinMaxScaler()},
n_estimators=200,
)


### Compute measures (Mean Squared Error)¶

measure_moe = MSEMeasure(moe)
measure_randfor = MSEMeasure(randfor)

print("Learn:")
print("Error MoE:", measure_moe.evaluate_learn())
print("Error Random Forest:", measure_randfor.evaluate_learn())

print("K-folds:")
print("Error MoE:", measure_moe.evaluate_kfolds())
print("Error Random Forest:", measure_randfor.evaluate_kfolds())

Learn:
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(
Error MoE: [8.19866424]
Error Random Forest: [4567.22027112]
K-folds:
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(
/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(
Error MoE: [26.99008863]
Error Random Forest: [17161.54269564]


### Plot data¶

plt.imshow(Y, interpolation="nearest")
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()


### Plot predictions¶

moe.learn()
randfor.learn()
Y_pred_moe = moe.predict(x_refined).reshape((refinement, refinement))
Y_pred_moe_0 = moe.predict_local_model(x_refined, 0).reshape((refinement, refinement))
Y_pred_moe_1 = moe.predict_local_model(x_refined, 1).reshape((refinement, refinement))
Y_pred_moe_2 = moe.predict_local_model(x_refined, 2).reshape((refinement, refinement))
Y_pred_randfor = randfor.predict(x_refined).reshape((refinement, refinement))

/home/docs/checkouts/readthedocs.org/user_builds/gemseo/envs/5.0.0/lib/python3.9/site-packages/sklearn/cluster/_kmeans.py:870: FutureWarning: The default value of n_init will change from 10 to 'auto' in 1.4. Set the value of n_init explicitly to suppress the warning
warnings.warn(


#### Plot mixture of experts predictions¶

plt.imshow(Y_pred_moe)
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()


#### Plot local models¶

plt.figure()
plt.imshow(Y_pred_moe_0)
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()

plt.figure()
plt.imshow(Y_pred_moe_1)
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()

plt.figure()
plt.imshow(Y_pred_moe_2)
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()


#### Plot random forest predictions¶

plt.imshow(Y_pred_randfor)
plt.colorbar()
plt.show()


Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 10.256 seconds)

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