gemseo / post / dataset

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andrews_curves module

Draw Andrews curves from a Dataset.

The AndrewsCurves class implements the Andrew plot, a.k.a. Andrews curves, which is a way to visualize \(n\) samples of a high-dimensional vector

\[x=(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_d)\in\mathbb{R}^d\]

in a 2D referential by projecting each sample

\[x^{(i)}=(x_1^{(i)},x_2^{(i)},\ldots,x_d^{(i)})\]

onto the vector

\[\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}},\sin(t),\cos(t),\sin(2t),\cos(2t), \ldots\right)\]

which is composed of the \(d\) first elements of the Fourier series:

\[f_i(t)=\left(\frac{x_1^{(i)}}{\sqrt{2}},x_2^{(i)}\sin(t),x_3^{(i)}\cos(t), x_4^{(i)}\sin(2t),x_5^{(i)}\cos(2t),\ldots\right)\]

Each curve \(t\mapsto f_i(t)\) is plotted over the interval \([-\pi,\pi]\) and structure in the data may be visible in these \(n\) Andrews curves.

A variable name can be passed to the DatasetPlot.execute() method by means of the classifier keyword in order to color the curves according to the value of the variable name. This is useful when the data is labeled.

class gemseo.post.dataset.andrews_curves.AndrewsCurves(dataset, classifier)[source]

Bases: DatasetPlot

Andrews curves.

Parameters:
  • dataset (Dataset) – The dataset containing the data to plot.

  • classifier (str) – The name of the variable to group the data.

Raises:

ValueError – If the dataset is empty.

class PlotEngine(value)

Bases: StrEnum

An engine of plots.

capitalize()

Return a capitalized version of the string.

More specifically, make the first character have upper case and the rest lower case.

casefold()

Return a version of the string suitable for caseless comparisons.

center(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a centered string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

count(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

encode(encoding='utf-8', errors='strict')

Encode the string using the codec registered for encoding.

encoding

The encoding in which to encode the string.

errors

The error handling scheme to use for encoding errors. The default is ‘strict’ meaning that encoding errors raise a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are ‘ignore’, ‘replace’ and ‘xmlcharrefreplace’ as well as any other name registered with codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors.

endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) bool

Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

expandtabs(tabsize=8)

Return a copy where all tab characters are expanded using spaces.

If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed.

find(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

format(*args, **kwargs) str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

format_map(mapping) str

Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping. The substitutions are identified by braces (‘{’ and ‘}’).

index(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

isalnum()

Return True if the string is an alpha-numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is alpha-numeric if all characters in the string are alpha-numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isalpha()

Return True if the string is an alphabetic string, False otherwise.

A string is alphabetic if all characters in the string are alphabetic and there is at least one character in the string.

isascii()

Return True if all characters in the string are ASCII, False otherwise.

ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F. Empty string is ASCII too.

isdecimal()

Return True if the string is a decimal string, False otherwise.

A string is a decimal string if all characters in the string are decimal and there is at least one character in the string.

isdigit()

Return True if the string is a digit string, False otherwise.

A string is a digit string if all characters in the string are digits and there is at least one character in the string.

isidentifier()

Return True if the string is a valid Python identifier, False otherwise.

Call keyword.iskeyword(s) to test whether string s is a reserved identifier, such as “def” or “class”.

islower()

Return True if the string is a lowercase string, False otherwise.

A string is lowercase if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

isnumeric()

Return True if the string is a numeric string, False otherwise.

A string is numeric if all characters in the string are numeric and there is at least one character in the string.

isprintable()

Return True if the string is printable, False otherwise.

A string is printable if all of its characters are considered printable in repr() or if it is empty.

isspace()

Return True if the string is a whitespace string, False otherwise.

A string is whitespace if all characters in the string are whitespace and there is at least one character in the string.

istitle()

Return True if the string is a title-cased string, False otherwise.

In a title-cased string, upper- and title-case characters may only follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.

isupper()

Return True if the string is an uppercase string, False otherwise.

A string is uppercase if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and there is at least one cased character in the string.

join(iterable, /)

Concatenate any number of strings.

The string whose method is called is inserted in between each given string. The result is returned as a new string.

Example: ‘.’.join([‘ab’, ‘pq’, ‘rs’]) -> ‘ab.pq.rs’

ljust(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a left-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

lower()

Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.

lstrip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with leading whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

static maketrans()

Return a translation table usable for str.translate().

If there is only one argument, it must be a dictionary mapping Unicode ordinals (integers) or characters to Unicode ordinals, strings or None. Character keys will be then converted to ordinals. If there are two arguments, they must be strings of equal length, and in the resulting dictionary, each character in x will be mapped to the character at the same position in y. If there is a third argument, it must be a string, whose characters will be mapped to None in the result.

partition(sep, /)

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing the original string and two empty strings.

removeprefix(prefix, /)

Return a str with the given prefix string removed if present.

If the string starts with the prefix string, return string[len(prefix):]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

removesuffix(suffix, /)

Return a str with the given suffix string removed if present.

If the string ends with the suffix string and that suffix is not empty, return string[:-len(suffix)]. Otherwise, return a copy of the original string.

replace(old, new, count=-1, /)

Return a copy with all occurrences of substring old replaced by new.

count

Maximum number of occurrences to replace. -1 (the default value) means replace all occurrences.

If the optional argument count is given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.

rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Return -1 on failure.

rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) int

Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation.

Raises ValueError when the substring is not found.

rjust(width, fillchar=' ', /)

Return a right-justified string of length width.

Padding is done using the specified fill character (default is a space).

rpartition(sep, /)

Partition the string into three parts using the given separator.

This will search for the separator in the string, starting at the end. If the separator is found, returns a 3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator itself, and the part after it.

If the separator is not found, returns a 3-tuple containing two empty strings and the original string.

rsplit(sep=None, maxsplit=-1)

Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.

sep

The delimiter according which to split the string. None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace, and discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits to do. -1 (the default value) means no limit.

Splits are done starting at the end of the string and working to the front.

rstrip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

split(sep=None, maxsplit=-1)

Return a list of the words in the string, using sep as the delimiter string.

sep

The delimiter according which to split the string. None (the default value) means split according to any whitespace, and discard empty strings from the result.

maxsplit

Maximum number of splits to do. -1 (the default value) means no limit.

splitlines(keepends=False)

Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line boundaries.

Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends is given and true.

startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) bool

Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise. With optional start, test S beginning at that position. With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try.

strip(chars=None, /)

Return a copy of the string with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead.

swapcase()

Convert uppercase characters to lowercase and lowercase characters to uppercase.

title()

Return a version of the string where each word is titlecased.

More specifically, words start with uppercased characters and all remaining cased characters have lower case.

translate(table, /)

Replace each character in the string using the given translation table.

table

Translation table, which must be a mapping of Unicode ordinals to Unicode ordinals, strings, or None.

The table must implement lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a dictionary or list. If this operation raises LookupError, the character is left untouched. Characters mapped to None are deleted.

upper()

Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.

zfill(width, /)

Pad a numeric string with zeros on the left, to fill a field of the given width.

The string is never truncated.

MATPLOTLIB = 'MatplotlibPlotFactory'
PLOTLY = 'PlotlyPlotFactory'
execute(save=True, show=False, file_path='', directory_path='', file_name='', file_format='png', file_name_suffix='', **engine_parameters)

Execute the post-processing.

Parameters:
  • save (bool) –

    Whether to save the plot.

    By default it is set to True.

  • show (bool) –

    Whether to display the plot.

    By default it is set to False.

  • file_path (str | Path) –

    The path of the file to save the figures. If empty, create a file path from directory_path, file_name and file_format.

    By default it is set to “”.

  • directory_path (str | Path) –

    The path of the directory to save the figures. If empty, use the current working directory.

    By default it is set to “”.

  • file_name (str) –

    The name of the file to save the figures. If empty, use a default one generated by the post-processing.

    By default it is set to “”.

  • file_format (str) –

    A file format, e.g. ‘png’, ‘pdf’, ‘svg’, …

    By default it is set to “png”.

  • file_name_suffix (str) –

    The suffix to be added to the file name.

    By default it is set to “”.

  • **engine_parameters (Any) – The parameters specific to the plot engine.

Returns:

The figures.

Return type:

list[BasePlot]

DEFAULT_PLOT_ENGINE: ClassVar[PlotEngine] = 'MatplotlibPlotFactory'

The default engine of plots.

FILE_FORMATS_TO_PLOT_ENGINES: ClassVar[dict[str, PlotEngine]] = {'html': PlotEngine.PLOTLY}

The file formats bound to the engines of plots.

The method execute() uses this dictionary to select the engine of plots associated with its file_format argument. If missing, the method uses the DEFAULT_PLOT_ENGINE.

property color: str | list[str]

The color.

Either a global one or one per item if n_items is non-zero. If empty, use a default one.

property colormap: str

The color map.

property dataset: Dataset

The dataset.

property fig_size: FigSizeType

The figure size.

property fig_size_x: float

The x-component of figure size.

property fig_size_y: float

The y-component of figure size.

property figures: list[BasePlot]

The figures.

property font_size: int

The font size.

property grid: bool

Whether to add a grid.

property labels: Mapping[str, str]

The labels for the variables.

property legend_location: str

The location of the legend.

property linestyle: str | Sequence[str]

The line style.

Either a global one or one per item if n_items is non-zero. If empty, use a default one.

property marker: str | Sequence[str]

The marker.

Either a global one or one per item if n_items is non-zero. If empty, use a default one.

property output_files: list[str]

The paths to the output files.

property rmax: float | None

The maximum value on the r-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property rmin: float | None

The minimum value on the r-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property title: str

The title of the plot.

property xlabel: str

The label for the x-axis.

property xmax: float | None

The maximum value on the x-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property xmin: float | None

The minimum value on the x-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property xtick_rotation: float

The rotation angle in degrees for the x-ticks.

property ylabel: str

The label for the y-axis.

property ymax: float | None

The maximum value on the y-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property ymin: float | None

The minimum value on the y-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property zlabel: str

The label for the z-axis.

property zmax: float | None

The maximum value on the z-axis; if None, compute it from data.

property zmin: float | None

The minimum value on the z-axis; if None, compute it from data.

Examples using AndrewsCurves

Iris dataset

Iris dataset

Andrews curves

Andrews curves