Scalable problem

We want to solve the Aerostructure MDO problem by means of the MDF formulation with a higher dimension for the sweep parameter. For that, we use the ScalableProblem class.

from __future__ import annotations

from gemseo import configure_logger
from gemseo import create_discipline
from gemseo import create_scenario
from gemseo.problems.aerostructure.aerostructure_design_space import (
from gemseo.problems.mdo.scalable.data_driven.problem import ScalableProblem

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/docs/checkouts/", line 36, in <module>
    from gemseo.problems.aerostructure.aerostructure_design_space import (
ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'gemseo.problems.aerostructure'

Define the design problem

In a first step, we define the design problem in terms of objective function (to maximize or minimize), design variables (local and global) and constraints (equality and inequality).

design_variables = ["thick_airfoils", "thick_panels", "sweep"]
objective_function = "range"
eq_constraints = ["c_rf"]
ineq_constraints = ["c_lift"]
maximize_objective = True

Create the disciplinary datasets

Then, we create the disciplinary AbstractFullCache datasets based on a DiagonalDOE.

disciplines = create_discipline(["Aerodynamics", "Structure", "Mission"])
datasets = []
for discipline in disciplines:
    design_space = AerostructureDesignSpace()
    output_names = iter(discipline.get_output_data_names())
    scenario = create_scenario(
    for output_name in output_names:
    scenario.execute({"algo": "DiagonalDOE", "n_samples": 10})
    datasets.append(scenario.to_dataset(, opt_naming=False))

Instantiate a scalable problem

In a third stage, we instantiate a ScalableProblem from these disciplinary datasets and from the definition of the MDO problem. We also increase the dimension of the sweep parameter.

problem = ScalableProblem(
    sizes={"sweep": 2},


We could also provide options to the ScalableModel objects by means of the constructor of ScalableProblem, e.g. fill_factor in the frame of the ScalableDiagonalModel. In this example, we use the standard ones.

Visualize the N2 chart

We can see the coupling between disciplines through this N2 chart:

problem.plot_n2_chart(save=False, show=True)

Create an MDO scenario

Lastly, we create an MDOScenario with the MDF formulation and start the optimization at equilibrium, thus ensuring the feasibility of the first iterate.

scenario = problem.create_scenario("MDF", start_at_equilibrium=True)


We could also provide options for the scalable models to the constructor of ScalableProblem, e.g. fill_factor in the frame of the ScalableDiagonalModel. In this example, we use the standard ones.

Once the scenario is created, we can execute it as any scenario. Here, we use the NLOPT_SLSQP optimization algorithm with no more than 100 iterations.

scenario.execute({"algo": "NLOPT_SLSQP", "max_iter": 100})

We can post-process the results. Here, we use the standard OptHistoryView.

scenario.post_process("OptHistoryView", save=False, show=True)

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 0.001 seconds)

Gallery generated by Sphinx-Gallery