gemseo / core

mdo_scenario module

A scenario whose driver is an optimization algorithm.

class gemseo.core.mdo_scenario.MDOScenario(disciplines, formulation, objective_name, design_space, name=None, grammar_type='JSONGrammar', maximize_objective=False, **formulation_options)[source]

Bases: Scenario

A multidisciplinary scenario to be executed by an optimizer.

A MDOScenario is a particular Scenario whose driver is an optimization algorithm. This algorithm must be implemented in an OptimizationLibrary.

Parameters:
  • disciplines (Sequence[MDODiscipline]) – The disciplines used to compute the objective, constraints and observables from the design variables.

  • formulation (str) – The class name of the MDOFormulation, e.g. "MDF", "IDF" or "BiLevel".

  • objective_name (str | Sequence[str]) – The name(s) of the discipline output(s) used as objective. If multiple names are passed, the objective will be a vector.

  • design_space (DesignSpace) – The search space including at least the design variables (some formulations requires additional variables, e.g. IDF with the coupling variables).

  • name (str | None) –

    The name to be given to this scenario. If None, use the name of the class.

    By default it is set to None.

  • grammar_type (str) –

    The type of grammar to declare the input and output variables either JSON_GRAMMAR_TYPE or SIMPLE_GRAMMAR_TYPE.

    By default it is set to JSONGrammar.

  • maximize_objective (bool) –

    Whether to maximize the objective.

    By default it is set to False.

  • **formulation_options (Any) – The options of the MDOFormulation.

classmethod activate_time_stamps()

Activate the time stamps.

For storing start and end times of execution and linearizations.

Return type:

None

add_constraint(output_name, constraint_type='eq', constraint_name=None, value=None, positive=False, **kwargs)

Add a design constraint.

This constraint is in addition to those created by the formulation, e.g. consistency constraints in IDF.

The strategy of repartition of the constraints is defined by the formulation.

Parameters:
  • output_name (str | Sequence[str]) – The names of the outputs to be used as constraints. For instance, if “g_1” is given and constraint_type=”eq”, g_1=0 will be added as constraint to the optimizer. If several names are given, a single discipline must provide all outputs.

  • constraint_type (str) –

    The type of constraint, “eq” for equality constraint and “ineq” for inequality constraint.

    By default it is set to eq.

  • constraint_name (str | None) –

    The name of the constraint to be stored. If None, the name of the constraint is generated from the output name.

    By default it is set to None.

  • value (float | None) –

    The value for which the constraint is active. If None, this value is 0.

    By default it is set to None.

  • positive (bool) –

    If True, the inequality constraint is positive.

    By default it is set to False.

Raises:

ValueError – If the constraint type is neither ‘eq’ or ‘ineq’.

Return type:

None

add_differentiated_inputs(inputs=None)

Add inputs against which to differentiate the outputs.

This method updates MDODiscipline._differentiated_inputs with inputs.

Parameters:

inputs (Iterable[str] | None) –

The input variables against which to differentiate the outputs. If None, all the inputs of the discipline are used.

By default it is set to None.

Raises:

ValueError – When the inputs wrt which differentiate the discipline are not inputs of the latter.

Return type:

None

add_differentiated_outputs(outputs=None)

Add outputs to be differentiated.

This method updates MDODiscipline._differentiated_outputs with outputs.

Parameters:

outputs (Iterable[str] | None) –

The output variables to be differentiated. If None, all the outputs of the discipline are used.

By default it is set to None.

Raises:

ValueError – When the outputs to differentiate are not discipline outputs.

Return type:

None

add_namespace_to_input(name, namespace)

Add a namespace prefix to an existing input grammar element.

The updated input grammar element name will be namespace``+:data:`~gemseo.core.namespaces.namespace_separator`+``name.

Parameters:
  • name (str) – The element name to rename.

  • namespace (str) – The name of the namespace.

add_namespace_to_output(name, namespace)

Add a namespace prefix to an existing output grammar element.

The updated output grammar element name will be namespace``+:data:`~gemseo.core.namespaces.namespace_separator`+``name.

Parameters:
  • name (str) – The element name to rename.

  • namespace (str) – The name of the namespace.

add_observable(output_names, observable_name=None, discipline=None)

Add an observable to the optimization problem.

The repartition strategy of the observable is defined in the formulation class. When more than one output name is provided, the observable function returns a concatenated array of the output values.

Parameters:
  • output_names (Sequence[str]) – The names of the outputs to observe.

  • observable_name (Sequence[str] | None) –

    The name to be given to the observable. If None, the output name is used by default.

    By default it is set to None.

  • discipline (MDODiscipline | None) –

    The discipline used to build the observable function. If None, detect the discipline from the inner disciplines.

    By default it is set to None.

Return type:

None

add_status_observer(obs)

Add an observer for the status.

Add an observer for the status to be notified when self changes of status.

Parameters:

obs (Any) – The observer to add.

Return type:

None

auto_get_grammar_file(is_input=True, name=None, comp_dir=None)

Use a naming convention to associate a grammar file to the discipline.

Search in the directory comp_dir for either an input grammar file named name + "_input.json" or an output grammar file named name + "_output.json".

Parameters:
  • is_input (bool) –

    Whether to search for an input or output grammar file.

    By default it is set to True.

  • name (str | None) –

    The name to be searched in the file names. If None, use the name of the discipline class.

    By default it is set to None.

  • comp_dir (str | Path | None) –

    The directory in which to search the grammar file. If None, use the GRAMMAR_DIRECTORY if any, or the directory of the discipline class module.

    By default it is set to None.

Returns:

The grammar file path.

Return type:

str

check_input_data(input_data, raise_exception=True)

Check the input data validity.

Parameters:
  • input_data (dict[str, Any]) – The input data needed to execute the discipline according to the discipline input grammar.

  • raise_exception (bool) –

    Whether to raise on error.

    By default it is set to True.

Return type:

None

check_jacobian(input_data=None, derr_approx='finite_differences', step=1e-07, threshold=1e-08, linearization_mode='auto', inputs=None, outputs=None, parallel=False, n_processes=2, use_threading=False, wait_time_between_fork=0, auto_set_step=False, plot_result=False, file_path='jacobian_errors.pdf', show=False, fig_size_x=10, fig_size_y=10, reference_jacobian_path=None, save_reference_jacobian=False, indices=None)

Check if the analytical Jacobian is correct with respect to a reference one.

If reference_jacobian_path is not None and save_reference_jacobian is True, compute the reference Jacobian with the approximation method and save it in reference_jacobian_path.

If reference_jacobian_path is not None and save_reference_jacobian is False, do not compute the reference Jacobian but read it from reference_jacobian_path.

If reference_jacobian_path is None, compute the reference Jacobian without saving it.

Parameters:
  • input_data (dict[str, ndarray] | None) –

    The input data needed to execute the discipline according to the discipline input grammar. If None, use the MDODiscipline.default_inputs.

    By default it is set to None.

  • derr_approx (str) –

    The approximation method, either “complex_step” or “finite_differences”.

    By default it is set to finite_differences.

  • threshold (float) –

    The acceptance threshold for the Jacobian error.

    By default it is set to 1e-08.

  • linearization_mode (str) –

    the mode of linearization: direct, adjoint or automated switch depending on dimensions of inputs and outputs (Default value = ‘auto’)

    By default it is set to auto.

  • inputs (Iterable[str] | None) –

    The names of the inputs wrt which to differentiate the outputs.

    By default it is set to None.

  • outputs (Iterable[str] | None) –

    The names of the outputs to be differentiated.

    By default it is set to None.

  • step (float) –

    The differentiation step.

    By default it is set to 1e-07.

  • parallel (bool) –

    Whether to differentiate the discipline in parallel.

    By default it is set to False.

  • n_processes (int) –

    The maximum simultaneous number of threads, if use_threading is True, or processes otherwise, used to parallelize the execution.

    By default it is set to 2.

  • use_threading (bool) –

    Whether to use threads instead of processes to parallelize the execution; multiprocessing will copy (serialize) all the disciplines, while threading will share all the memory This is important to note if you want to execute the same discipline multiple times, you shall use multiprocessing.

    By default it is set to False.

  • wait_time_between_fork (float) –

    The time waited between two forks of the process / thread.

    By default it is set to 0.

  • auto_set_step (bool) –

    Whether to compute the optimal step for a forward first order finite differences gradient approximation.

    By default it is set to False.

  • plot_result (bool) –

    Whether to plot the result of the validation (computed vs approximated Jacobians).

    By default it is set to False.

  • file_path (str | Path) –

    The path to the output file if plot_result is True.

    By default it is set to jacobian_errors.pdf.

  • show (bool) –

    Whether to open the figure.

    By default it is set to False.

  • fig_size_x (float) –

    The x-size of the figure in inches.

    By default it is set to 10.

  • fig_size_y (float) –

    The y-size of the figure in inches.

    By default it is set to 10.

  • reference_jacobian_path (str | Path | None) –

    The path of the reference Jacobian file.

    By default it is set to None.

  • save_reference_jacobian (bool) –

    Whether to save the reference Jacobian.

    By default it is set to False.

  • indices (Iterable[int] | None) –

    The indices of the inputs and outputs for the different sub-Jacobian matrices, formatted as {variable_name: variable_components} where variable_components can be either an integer, e.g. 2 a sequence of integers, e.g. [0, 3], a slice, e.g. slice(0,3), the ellipsis symbol () or None, which is the same as ellipsis. If a variable name is missing, consider all its components. If None, consider all the components of all the inputs and outputs.

    By default it is set to None.

Returns:

Whether the analytical Jacobian is correct with respect to the reference one.

check_output_data(raise_exception=True)

Check the output data validity.

Parameters:

raise_exception (bool) –

Whether to raise an exception when the data is invalid.

By default it is set to True.

Return type:

None

classmethod deactivate_time_stamps()

Deactivate the time stamps.

For storing start and end times of execution and linearizations.

Return type:

None

static deserialize(file_path)

Deserialize a discipline from a file.

Parameters:

file_path (str | Path) – The path to the file containing the discipline.

Returns:

The discipline instance.

Return type:

MDODiscipline

execute(input_data=None)

Execute the discipline.

This method executes the discipline:

Parameters:

input_data (Mapping[str, Any] | None) –

The input data needed to execute the discipline according to the discipline input grammar. If None, use the MDODiscipline.default_inputs.

By default it is set to None.

Returns:

The discipline local data after execution.

Raises:

RuntimeError – When residual_variables are declared but self.run_solves_residuals is False. This is not suported yet.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

export_to_dataset(name=None, by_group=True, categorize=True, opt_naming=True, export_gradients=False)

Export the database of the optimization problem to a Dataset.

The variables can be classified into groups: Dataset.DESIGN_GROUP or Dataset.INPUT_GROUP for the design variables and Dataset.FUNCTION_GROUP or Dataset.OUTPUT_GROUP for the functions (objective, constraints and observables).

Parameters:
  • name (str | None) –

    The name to be given to the dataset. If None, use the name of the OptimizationProblem.database.

    By default it is set to None.

  • by_group (bool) –

    Whether to store the data by group in Dataset.data, in the sense of one unique NumPy array per group. If categorize is False, there is a unique group: Dataset.PARAMETER_GROUP`. If categorize is True, the groups can be either Dataset.DESIGN_GROUP and Dataset.FUNCTION_GROUP if opt_naming is True, or Dataset.INPUT_GROUP and Dataset.OUTPUT_GROUP. If by_group is False, store the data by variable names.

    By default it is set to True.

  • categorize (bool) –

    Whether to distinguish between the different groups of variables. Otherwise, group all the variables in Dataset.PARAMETER_GROUP`.

    By default it is set to True.

  • opt_naming (bool) –

    Whether to use Dataset.DESIGN_GROUP and Dataset.FUNCTION_GROUP as groups. Otherwise, use Dataset.INPUT_GROUP and Dataset.OUTPUT_GROUP.

    By default it is set to True.

  • export_gradients (bool) –

    Whether to export the gradients of the functions (objective function, constraints and observables) if the latter are available in the database of the optimization problem.

    By default it is set to False.

Returns:

A dataset built from the database of the optimization problem.

Return type:

Dataset

get_all_inputs()

Return the local input data as a list.

The order is given by MDODiscipline.get_input_data_names().

Returns:

The local input data.

Return type:

list[Any]

get_all_outputs()

Return the local output data as a list.

The order is given by MDODiscipline.get_output_data_names().

Returns:

The local output data.

Return type:

list[Any]

get_attributes_to_serialize()

Define the names of the attributes to be serialized.

Shall be overloaded by disciplines

Returns:

The names of the attributes to be serialized.

Return type:

list[str]

get_available_driver_names()

The available drivers.

Return type:

list[str]

static get_data_list_from_dict(keys, data_dict)

Filter the dict from a list of keys or a single key.

If keys is a string, then the method return the value associated to the key. If keys is a list of strings, then the method returns a generator of value corresponding to the keys which can be iterated.

Parameters:
  • keys (str | Iterable) – One or several names.

  • data_dict (dict[str, Any]) – The mapping from which to get the data.

Returns:

Either a data or a generator of data.

Return type:

Any | Generator[Any]

get_disciplines_in_dataflow_chain()

Return the disciplines that must be shown as blocks within the XDSM representation of a chain.

By default, only the discipline itself is shown. This function can be differently implemented for any type of inherited discipline.

Returns:

The disciplines shown in the XDSM chain.

Return type:

list[gemseo.core.discipline.MDODiscipline]

get_disciplines_statuses()

Retrieve the statuses of the disciplines.

Returns:

The statuses of the disciplines.

Return type:

dict[str, str]

get_expected_dataflow()

Return the expected data exchange sequence.

This method is used for the XDSM representation.

The default expected data exchange sequence is an empty list.

See also

MDOFormulation.get_expected_dataflow

Returns:

The data exchange arcs.

Return type:

list[tuple[gemseo.core.discipline.MDODiscipline, gemseo.core.discipline.MDODiscipline, list[str]]]

get_expected_workflow()

Return the expected execution sequence.

This method is used for the XDSM representation.

The default expected execution sequence is the execution of the discipline itself.

See also

MDOFormulation.get_expected_workflow

Returns:

The expected execution sequence.

Return type:

gemseo.core.execution_sequence.LoopExecSequence

get_input_data(with_namespaces=True)

Return the local input data as a dictionary.

Parameters:

with_namespaces

Whether to keep the namespace prefix of the input names, if any.

By default it is set to True.

Returns:

The local input data.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

get_input_data_names(with_namespaces=True)

Return the names of the input variables.

Parameters:

with_namespaces

Whether to keep the namespace prefix of the input names, if any.

By default it is set to True.

Returns:

The names of the input variables.

Return type:

list[str]

get_input_output_data_names(with_namespaces=True)

Return the names of the input and output variables.

Args:
with_namespaces: Whether to keep the namespace prefix of the

output names, if any.

Returns:

The name of the input and output variables.

Return type:

list[str]

get_inputs_asarray()

Return the local output data as a large NumPy array.

The order is the one of MDODiscipline.get_all_outputs().

Returns:

The local output data.

Return type:

numpy.ndarray

get_inputs_by_name(data_names)

Return the local data associated with input variables.

Parameters:

data_names (Iterable[str]) – The names of the input variables.

Returns:

The local data for the given input variables.

Raises:

ValueError – When a variable is not an input of the discipline.

Return type:

list[Any]

get_local_data_by_name(data_names)

Return the local data of the discipline associated with variables names.

Parameters:

data_names (Iterable[str]) – The names of the variables.

Returns:

The local data associated with the variables names.

Raises:

ValueError – When a name is not a discipline input name.

Return type:

Generator[Any]

get_optim_variables_names()

A convenience function to access the optimization variables.

Returns:

The optimization variables of the scenario.

Return type:

list[str]

get_optimum()

Return the optimization results.

Returns:

The optimal solution found by the scenario if executed, None otherwise.

Return type:

OptimizationResult | None

get_output_data(with_namespaces=True)

Return the local output data as a dictionary.

Parameters:

with_namespaces

Whether to keep the namespace prefix of the output names, if any.

By default it is set to True.

Returns:

The local output data.

Return type:

dict[str, Any]

get_output_data_names(with_namespaces=True)

Return the names of the output variables.

Parameters:

with_namespaces

Whether to keep the namespace prefix of the output names, if any.

By default it is set to True.

Returns:

The names of the output variables.

Return type:

list[str]

get_outputs_asarray()

Return the local input data as a large NumPy array.

The order is the one of MDODiscipline.get_all_inputs().

Returns:

The local input data.

Return type:

numpy.ndarray

get_outputs_by_name(data_names)

Return the local data associated with output variables.

Parameters:

data_names (Iterable[str]) – The names of the output variables.

Returns:

The local data for the given output variables.

Raises:

ValueError – When a variable is not an output of the discipline.

Return type:

list[Any]

get_sub_disciplines()

Return the sub-disciplines if any.

Returns:

The sub-disciplines.

Return type:

list[gemseo.core.discipline.MDODiscipline]

is_all_inputs_existing(data_names)

Test if several variables are discipline inputs.

Parameters:

data_names (Iterable[str]) – The names of the variables.

Returns:

Whether all the variables are discipline inputs.

Return type:

bool

is_all_outputs_existing(data_names)

Test if several variables are discipline outputs.

Parameters:

data_names (Iterable[str]) – The names of the variables.

Returns:

Whether all the variables are discipline outputs.

Return type:

bool

is_input_existing(data_name)

Test if a variable is a discipline input.

Parameters:

data_name (str) – The name of the variable.

Returns:

Whether the variable is a discipline input.

Return type:

bool

is_output_existing(data_name)

Test if a variable is a discipline output.

Parameters:

data_name (str) – The name of the variable.

Returns:

Whether the variable is a discipline output.

Return type:

bool

static is_scenario()

Indicate if the current object is a Scenario.

Returns:

True if the current object is a Scenario.

Return type:

bool

linearize(input_data=None, force_all=False, force_no_exec=False)

Execute the linearized version of the code.

Parameters:
  • input_data (dict[str, Any] | None) –

    The input data needed to linearize the discipline according to the discipline input grammar. If None, use the MDODiscipline.default_inputs.

    By default it is set to None.

  • force_all (bool) –

    If False, MDODiscipline._differentiated_inputs and MDODiscipline._differentiated_outputs are used to filter the differentiated variables. otherwise, all outputs are differentiated wrt all inputs.

    By default it is set to False.

  • force_no_exec (bool) –

    If True, the discipline is not re-executed, cache is loaded anyway.

    By default it is set to False.

Returns:

The Jacobian of the discipline.

Return type:

dict[str, dict[str, ndarray]]

notify_status_observers()

Notify all status observers that the status has changed.

Return type:

None

post_process(post_name, **options)

Post-process the optimization history.

Parameters:
  • post_name (str) – The name of the post-processor, i.e. the name of a class inheriting from OptPostProcessor.

  • **options (OptPostProcessorOptionType | Path) – The options for the post-processor.

Return type:

OptPostProcessor

print_execution_metrics()

Print the total number of executions and cumulated runtime by discipline.

Return type:

None

remove_status_observer(obs)

Remove an observer for the status.

Parameters:

obs (Any) – The observer to remove.

Return type:

None

reset_statuses_for_run()

Set all the statuses to MDODiscipline.STATUS_PENDING.

Raises:

ValueError – When the discipline cannot be run because of its status.

Return type:

None

save_optimization_history(file_path, file_format='hdf5', append=False)

Save the optimization history of the scenario to a file.

Parameters:
  • file_path (str | Path) – The path of the file to save the history.

  • file_format (str) –

    The format of the file, either “hdf5” or “ggobi”.

    By default it is set to hdf5.

  • append (bool) –

    If True, the history is appended to the file if not empty.

    By default it is set to False.

Raises:

ValueError – If the file format is not correct.

Return type:

None

serialize(file_path)

Serialize the discipline and store it in a file.

Parameters:

file_path (str | Path) – The path to the file to store the discipline.

Return type:

None

set_cache_policy(cache_type='SimpleCache', cache_tolerance=0.0, cache_hdf_file=None, cache_hdf_node_name=None, is_memory_shared=True)

Set the type of cache to use and the tolerance level.

This method defines when the output data have to be cached according to the distance between the corresponding input data and the input data already cached for which output data are also cached.

The cache can be either a SimpleCache recording the last execution or a cache storing all executions, e.g. MemoryFullCache and HDF5Cache. Caching data can be either in-memory, e.g. SimpleCache and MemoryFullCache, or on the disk, e.g. HDF5Cache.

The attribute CacheFactory.caches provides the available caches types.

Parameters:
  • cache_type (str) –

    The type of cache.

    By default it is set to SimpleCache.

  • cache_tolerance (float) –

    The maximum relative norm of the difference between two input arrays to consider that two input arrays are equal.

    By default it is set to 0.0.

  • cache_hdf_file (str | Path | None) –

    The path to the HDF file to store the data; this argument is mandatory when the MDODiscipline.HDF5_CACHE policy is used.

    By default it is set to None.

  • cache_hdf_node_name (str | None) –

    The name of the HDF file node to store the discipline data. If None, MDODiscipline.name is used.

    By default it is set to None.

  • is_memory_shared (bool) –

    Whether to store the data with a shared memory dictionary, which makes the cache compatible with multiprocessing.

    By default it is set to True.

Return type:

None

set_differentiation_method(method='user', step=1e-06)

Set the differentiation method for the process.

Parameters:
  • method (str | None) –

    The method to use to differentiate the process, either “user”, “finite_differences”, “complex_step” or “no_derivatives”, which is equivalent to None.

    By default it is set to user.

  • step (float) –

    The finite difference step.

    By default it is set to 1e-06.

Return type:

None

set_disciplines_statuses(status)

Set the sub-disciplines statuses.

To be implemented in subclasses.

Parameters:

status (str) – The status.

Return type:

None

set_jacobian_approximation(jac_approx_type='finite_differences', jax_approx_step=1e-07, jac_approx_n_processes=1, jac_approx_use_threading=False, jac_approx_wait_time=0)

Set the Jacobian approximation method.

Sets the linearization mode to approx_method, sets the parameters of the approximation for further use when calling MDODiscipline.linearize().

Parameters:
  • jac_approx_type (str) –

    The approximation method, either “complex_step” or “finite_differences”.

    By default it is set to finite_differences.

  • jax_approx_step (float) –

    The differentiation step.

    By default it is set to 1e-07.

  • jac_approx_n_processes (int) –

    The maximum simultaneous number of threads, if jac_approx_use_threading is True, or processes otherwise, used to parallelize the execution.

    By default it is set to 1.

  • jac_approx_use_threading (bool) –

    Whether to use threads instead of processes to parallelize the execution; multiprocessing will copy (serialize) all the disciplines, while threading will share all the memory This is important to note if you want to execute the same discipline multiple times, you shall use multiprocessing.

    By default it is set to False.

  • jac_approx_wait_time (float) –

    The time waited between two forks of the process / thread.

    By default it is set to 0.

Return type:

None

set_optimal_fd_step(outputs=None, inputs=None, force_all=False, print_errors=False, numerical_error=2.220446049250313e-16)

Compute the optimal finite-difference step.

Compute the optimal step for a forward first order finite differences gradient approximation. Requires a first evaluation of the perturbed functions values. The optimal step is reached when the truncation error (cut in the Taylor development), and the numerical cancellation errors (round-off when doing f(x+step)-f(x)) are approximately equal.

Warning

This calls the discipline execution twice per input variables.

See also

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_differentiation and “Numerical Algorithms and Digital Representation”, Knut Morken , Chapter 11, “Numerical Differentiation”

Parameters:
  • inputs (Iterable[str] | None) –

    The inputs wrt which the outputs are linearized. If None, use the MDODiscipline._differentiated_inputs.

    By default it is set to None.

  • outputs (Iterable[str] | None) –

    The outputs to be linearized. If None, use the MDODiscipline._differentiated_outputs.

    By default it is set to None.

  • force_all (bool) –

    Whether to consider all the inputs and outputs of the discipline;

    By default it is set to False.

  • print_errors (bool) –

    Whether to display the estimated errors.

    By default it is set to False.

  • numerical_error (float) –

    The numerical error associated to the calculation of f. By default, this is the machine epsilon (appx 1e-16), but can be higher when the calculation of f requires a numerical resolution.

    By default it is set to 2.220446049250313e-16.

Returns:

The estimated errors of truncation and cancellation error.

Raises:

ValueError – When the Jacobian approximation method has not been set.

set_optimization_history_backup(file_path, each_new_iter=False, each_store=True, erase=False, pre_load=False, generate_opt_plot=False)

Set the backup file for the optimization history during the run.

Parameters:
  • file_path (str | Path) – The path to the file to save the history.

  • each_new_iter (bool) –

    If True, callback at every iteration.

    By default it is set to False.

  • each_store (bool) –

    If True, callback at every call to store() in the database.

    By default it is set to True.

  • erase (bool) –

    If True, the backup file is erased before the run.

    By default it is set to False.

  • pre_load (bool) –

    If True, the backup file is loaded before run, useful after a crash.

    By default it is set to False.

  • generate_opt_plot (bool) –

    If True, generate the optimization history view at backup.

    By default it is set to False.

Raises:

ValueError – If both erase and pre_load are True.

Return type:

None

store_local_data(**kwargs)

Store discipline data in local data.

Parameters:

**kwargs (Any) – The data to be stored in MDODiscipline.local_data.

Return type:

None

xdsmize(monitor=False, outdir='.', print_statuses=False, outfilename='xdsm.html', latex_output=False, open_browser=False, html_output=True, json_output=False)

Create a JSON file defining the XDSM related to the current scenario.

Parameters:
  • monitor (bool) –

    If True, update the generated file at each discipline status change.

    By default it is set to False.

  • outdir (str | None) –

    The directory where the JSON file is generated. If None, the current working directory is used.

    By default it is set to ..

  • print_statuses (bool) –

    If True, print the statuses in the console at each update.

    By default it is set to False.

  • outfilename (str) –

    The name of the file of the output. The basename is used and the extension is adapted for the HTML / JSON / PDF outputs.

    By default it is set to xdsm.html.

  • latex_output (bool) –

    If True, build TEX, TIKZ and PDF files.

    By default it is set to False.

  • open_browser (bool) –

    If True, open the web browser and display the the XDSM.

    By default it is set to False.

  • html_output (bool) –

    If True, output a self contained HTML file.

    By default it is set to True.

  • json_output (bool) –

    If True, output a JSON file for XDSMjs.

    By default it is set to False.

Return type:

None

ALGO = 'algo'
ALGO_OPTIONS = 'algo_options'
APPROX_MODES = ['finite_differences', 'complex_step']
AVAILABLE_MODES = ('auto', 'direct', 'adjoint', 'reverse', 'finite_differences', 'complex_step')
AVAILABLE_STATUSES = ['DONE', 'FAILED', 'PENDING', 'RUNNING', 'VIRTUAL']
COMPLEX_STEP = 'complex_step'
FINITE_DIFFERENCES = 'finite_differences'
GRAMMAR_DIRECTORY: ClassVar[str | None] = None

The directory in which to search for the grammar files if not the class one.

HDF5_CACHE = 'HDF5Cache'
JSON_GRAMMAR_TYPE = 'JSONGrammar'
L_BOUNDS = 'l_bounds'
MAX_ITER = 'max_iter'
MEMORY_FULL_CACHE = 'MemoryFullCache'
N_CPUS = 2
RE_EXECUTE_DONE_POLICY = 'RE_EXEC_DONE'
RE_EXECUTE_NEVER_POLICY = 'RE_EXEC_NEVER'
SIMPLE_CACHE = 'SimpleCache'
SIMPLE_GRAMMAR_TYPE = 'SimpleGrammar'
STATUS_DONE = 'DONE'
STATUS_FAILED = 'FAILED'
STATUS_PENDING = 'PENDING'
STATUS_RUNNING = 'RUNNING'
STATUS_VIRTUAL = 'VIRTUAL'
U_BOUNDS = 'u_bounds'
X_0 = 'x_0'
X_OPT = 'x_opt'
activate_cache: bool = True

Whether to cache the discipline evaluations by default.

activate_counters: ClassVar[bool] = True

Whether to activate the counters (execution time, calls and linearizations).

activate_input_data_check: ClassVar[bool] = True

Whether to check the input data respect the input grammar.

activate_output_data_check: ClassVar[bool] = True

Whether to check the output data respect the output grammar.

cache: AbstractCache

The cache containing one or several executions of the discipline according to the cache policy.

property cache_tol: float

The cache input tolerance.

This is the tolerance for equality of the inputs in the cache. If norm(stored_input_data-input_data) <= cache_tol * norm(stored_input_data), the cached data for stored_input_data is returned when calling self.execute(input_data).

Raises:

ValueError – When the discipline does not have a cache.

clear_history_before_run: bool

If True, clear history before run.

data_processor: DataProcessor

A tool to pre- and post-process discipline data.

property default_inputs: dict[str, Any]

The default inputs.

Raises:

TypeError – When the default inputs are not passed as a dictionary.

property design_space: DesignSpace

The design space on which the scenario is performed.

disciplines: list[MDODiscipline]

The disciplines.

exec_for_lin: bool

Whether the last execution was due to a linearization.

property exec_time: float | None

The cumulated execution time of the discipline.

This property is multiprocessing safe.

Raises:

RuntimeError – When the discipline counters are disabled.

formulation: MDOFormulation

The MDO formulation.

formulation_name: str

The name of the MDO formulation.

property grammar_type: BaseGrammar

The type of grammar to be used for inputs and outputs declaration.

input_grammar: BaseGrammar

The input grammar.

jac: dict[str, dict[str, ndarray]]

The Jacobians of the outputs wrt inputs of the form {output: {input: matrix}}.

property linearization_mode: str

The linearization mode among MDODiscipline.AVAILABLE_MODES.

Raises:

ValueError – When the linearization mode is unknown.

property local_data: DisciplineData

The current input and output data.

property n_calls: int | None

The number of times the discipline was executed.

This property is multiprocessing safe.

Raises:

RuntimeError – When the discipline counters are disabled.

property n_calls_linearize: int | None

The number of times the discipline was linearized.

This property is multiprocessing safe.

Raises:

RuntimeError – When the discipline counters are disabled.

name: str

The name of the discipline.

optimization_result: OptimizationResult

The optimization result.

output_grammar: BaseGrammar

The output grammar.

property post_factory: PostFactory | None

The factory of post-processors.

property posts: list[str]

The available post-processors.

re_exec_policy: str

The policy to re-execute the same discipline.

residual_variables: Mapping[str, str]

The output variables mapping to their inputs, to be considered as residuals; they shall be equal to zero.

run_solves_residuals: bool

If True, the run method shall solve the residuals.

property status: str

The status of the discipline.

time_stamps = None
property use_standardized_objective: bool

Whether to use the standardized OptimizationProblem.objective for logging and post-processing.

Examples using MDOScenario

Basic history

Basic history

Basic history
Constraints history

Constraints history

Constraints history
Correlations

Correlations

Correlations
Gantt Chart

Gantt Chart

Gantt Chart
Gradient Sensitivity

Gradient Sensitivity

Gradient Sensitivity
Objective and constraints history

Objective and constraints history

Objective and constraints history
Optimization History View

Optimization History View

Optimization History View
Parallel coordinates

Parallel coordinates

Parallel coordinates
Pareto front

Pareto front

Pareto front
Pareto front on Binh and Korn problem using a BiLevel formulation

Pareto front on Binh and Korn problem using a BiLevel formulation

Pareto front on Binh and Korn problem using a BiLevel formulation
Quadratic approximations

Quadratic approximations

Quadratic approximations
Radar chart

Radar chart

Radar chart
Robustness

Robustness

Robustness
Variables influence

Variables influence

Variables influence
Solve a 2D L-shape topology optimization problem

Solve a 2D L-shape topology optimization problem

Solve a 2D L-shape topology optimization problem
Solve a 2D MBB topology optimization problem

Solve a 2D MBB topology optimization problem

Solve a 2D MBB topology optimization problem
Solve a 2D short cantilever topology optimization problem

Solve a 2D short cantilever topology optimization problem

Solve a 2D short cantilever topology optimization problem
Parametric scalable MDO problem - MDF

Parametric scalable MDO problem - MDF

Parametric scalable MDO problem - MDF
Scalable problem

Scalable problem

Scalable problem
Plug a surrogate discipline in a Scenario

Plug a surrogate discipline in a Scenario

Plug a surrogate discipline in a Scenario
Create an MDO Scenario

Create an MDO Scenario

Create an MDO Scenario
Store observables

Store observables

Store observables
BiLevel-based DOE on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

BiLevel-based DOE on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

BiLevel-based DOE on the Sobieski SSBJ test case
BiLevel-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

BiLevel-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

BiLevel-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case
IDF-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

IDF-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

IDF-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case
MDF-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

MDF-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case

MDF-based MDO on the Sobieski SSBJ test case
Multistart optimization

Multistart optimization

Multistart optimization
A from scratch example on the Sellar problem

A from scratch example on the Sellar problem

A from scratch example on the Sellar problem
Application: Sobieski's Super-Sonic Business Jet (MDO)

Application: Sobieski’s Super-Sonic Business Jet (MDO)

Application: Sobieski's Super-Sonic Business Jet (MDO)
MDO formulations for a toy example in aerostructure

MDO formulations for a toy example in aerostructure

MDO formulations for a toy example in aerostructure
|g| in 10 minutes

GEMSEO in 10 minutes

|g| in 10 minutes
Post-processing

Post-processing

Post-processing