# Analytical test case # 1¶

In this example, we consider a simple optimization problem to illustrate algorithms interfaces and MDOFunction.

## Imports¶

from __future__ import annotations

from gemseo.api import configure_logger
from gemseo.core.mdofunctions.mdo_function import MDOFunction
from numpy import cos
from numpy import exp
from numpy import ones
from numpy import sin
from scipy import optimize

configure_logger()

<RootLogger root (INFO)>


## Define the objective function¶

We define the objective function $$f(x)=\sin(x)-\exp(x)$$ using a MDOFunction defined by the sum of MDOFunction s.

f_1 = MDOFunction(sin, name="f_1", jac=cos, expr="sin(x)")
f_2 = MDOFunction(exp, name="f_2", jac=exp, expr="exp(x)")
objective = f_1 - f_2


The following operators are implemented: $$+$$, $$-$$ and $$*$$. The minus operator is also defined.

print("Objective function = ", objective)

Objective function =  f_1-f_2 = sin(x)-exp(x)


## Minimize the objective function¶

We want to minimize this objective function over $$[-2,2]$$, starting from 1. We use scipy.optimize for illustration.

Note

MDOFunction objects are callable like a Python function.

x_0 = -ones(1)
opt = optimize.fmin_l_bfgs_b(objective, x_0, fprime=objective.jac, bounds=[(-0.2, 2.0)])

print("Optimum = ", opt)

Optimum =  (array([-0.2]), -1.017400083873043, {'grad': array([0.16133582]), 'task': 'CONVERGENCE: NORM_OF_PROJECTED_GRADIENT_<=_PGTOL', 'funcalls': 1, 'nit': 0, 'warnflag': 0})


Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 0.004 seconds)

Gallery generated by Sphinx-Gallery